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Tuesday, 18 April 2017

Vaishali bricks throw up posers on Harappa last leg

Krishnendu Das
The discovery of some Harappan-type bricks from Raghopur Diara of Vaishali district near Patna (report published in The Telegraph on April 8, 2017), is of immense importance to the country from both archaeological and historiographical perspectives. The findings may not only answer many hitherto unsolved questions that shroud the last phase of the great Harappan civilisation, but may force us write our early-period history afresh as well.

The director of Bihar's state archaeological directorate, Atul Verma, visited the place some six months ago and collected two bricks. He examined the bricks himself and also showed it to the former joint director-general of the Archaeological Survey of India, K.N. Dikshit. Dikshit confirmed the Harappan identity of the bricks after checking their thickness, width and length ratio which is 1:2:4, a typical "mature Harappan" trait.

Scholars have divided the entire Harappa era broadly into three phases - early, mature and late. The early phase spans from 3500 BC to 2800/2700 BC (from the beginning of village farming to the beginning of urbanisation). Mature phase was from 2700 BC to 2000/1900 BC (from the beginning of urbanisation to the starting of the devolution of the urbanism). The late phase spanned between 2000/1900 BC and 1400/1300 BC (post-urban Harappan).

In the mature phase, there was a standard ratio of the Harappan bricks as mentioned above. The kiln-fired bricks which were recovered from Raghopur Diara were exactly of the same size and nature as the mature Harappan bricks. This is startling as mature Harappan kiln-fired bricks were never found in east India so far. Till date, the easternmost Harappan site has been identified as Alamgirpur of the Ganga-Yamuna doab area of Uttar Pradesh. Other prominent Harappan sites which were situated in the vicinity of Alamgirpur are Hulas, Mandi, Sanauli and so on.

Alamgirpur and Hulas are late-Harappan sites though some mature Harappan materials - mud bricks, burnt brick (burnt bricks were not found in Hulas though unearthed in limited numbers from Alamgirpur), pottery pieces, stone and bone implements and some Harappan mud and mud brick structures have been excavated from there. The earliest dates, measured through the C14 method (a method to ascertain the date of an organic material using the radioactive isotope of carbon) of those sites go back to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. Though some mature Harappan materials were found from these sites, any sign of mature Harappan urban prosperity has always eluded these areas.

Sanauli is a late-Harappan burial site. Some 125 graves have been discovered here. The site is very important because of the scarcity of the late-Harappan burial sites. Mandi is famous for its Harappan jewellery hoard. The hoard was found accidentally in the course of a ground levelling operation.

After the discovery, the villagers there began a hunt for more jewellery which continued for the next four to five days. The news reached the Uttar Pradesh archaeology department only after a few more days. Some 10 kilograms of jewellery were recovered from the site when the Uttar Pradesh state archaeology department and the Archaeological Survey of India sent teams to survey the village.



Archaeologists identified Mandi as a late-Harappan site. The treasury consists of two copper containers and a large number of beads made of gold, banded agate, onyx and copper. These types of materials were found earlier in sites such as Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Lothal, Kalibangan, Allahdino, Chanhudaro, Surokotada and Kunal, though not in hoards.

Scholars are yet to come to a conclusion as to how this jewellery hoard could be related to an otherwise "unimpressive" late-Harappan site as Mandi. However, what is strikingly significant here is that in none of the above mentioned eastern Harappan sites did archaeologists ever recover large numbers of Harappan kiln burnt brick as found at Raghopur Diara.

The late phase of the Harappan civilisation has long been a subject of scholarly debates and theories. What were the causes of the decline of the Harappan civilisation? Where did the Harappans go after the decline of the civilisation? Scholars such as Mortimer Wheeler and Gordon Childe believed that the invasion of the Aryans caused a civilisational downfall in Harappa. Primarily because Wheeler discovered some scattered human skeletons at Mohenjodaro. But this theory lost its validity after a close scrutiny of those 37 scattered skeletons of Mohenjodaro by archaeologist G.F. Dales of the University of California at Berkeley. Dales, one of the co-directors of the ground-breaking Harappa Archaeological Research Project, published his theory in the journal Expedition (May 1964 issue) describing the whole issue as a "mythical massacre".

Floods in the river Indus and several other natural calamities such as drought, earthquake and decline in the external trade of the Harappan civilisation are various other theories propagated by various scholars that dot scholarly materials regarding the decline of the Harappan civilization. In recent times, the most discussed theory on the decline of Harappa has been that of the drying up of the Ghaggar-Hakra rivers which are often identified with the Rig Vedic Sarasvati river.

Now, many archaeologists feel that we should look at the decline of Harappa from an altogether different angle. They believe that instead of the downfall of the civilisation, we could perhaps simply call it a process of gradual de-urbanisation of the Harappan civilisation. Whatever may be the cause behind this de-urbanisation, scholars have always remained sure that a group of Harappan people had migrated towards the east. The discovery of late-Harappan sites such as Alamgirpur, Hulas, Mandi, Sanauli and so on is nothing but examples of eastward migration of the civilisation.

But the unique case of finding of mature Harappan kiln-fired bricks at Raghopur Diara, about 1100 kilometres southeast of Alamgirpur, is sure to perplex archaeologists. The main question doing the rounds is that if the sites in Uttar Pradesh are known as late-Harappan sites, how can mature Harappan civilisation travel further eastward?

Therefore, scholars may now have to trace the entire course and span of Harappan civilisation anew if more associated Harappan materials are excavated from Raghopur Diara or its surroundings that authenticate the importance of the primary finding. The context of a finding is of utmost importance in archaeology. The findings have sent archaeologists across the country in a tizzy and many of them are already set to go to Raghopur Diara to survey the area in search of more clues.

If Raghopur Diara is established as a mature Harappan site, it will not only throw in the bin many theories on the civilisation and its decline but will also warrant a great deal of rewriting of the course of the civilisation, and therefore our history. But for now, we will have to wait for the results of the explorations which are going to be conducted by archaeologists.

Yog

Thursday, 16 March 2017

Beyond Indus Ceramics: Exploring the British Museum Collections

Greetings! – this is Alessandro and I am one of the ceramics specialists for the ERC TwoRains project. For my PhD research, I am pursuing a holistic approach to the study of archaeological ceramic materials from Indus urban and post-urban sites being excavated by the project to trace social continuity and transformations within the production systems of rural communities.
Long story short: I spend a lot of time looking at fragments of pottery, thin-sections and ceramic powder samples. I am combining technological and compositional methods to study ceramic industries, including thin-section petrography, XRD, FTIR, WD-XRF and pXRF. Combining these methods with traditional morpho-stylistic analysis, I am investigating the production (chaîne opératoire) of artefacts to understand synchronic and diachronic cultural behaviour.

Yog .

TWORAINS BLOG

Thursday, 2 February 2017

Adaptation to Variable Environments, Resilience to Climate Change: Investigating Land, Water and Settlement in Indus Northwest India


 Cameron A. Petrie, Ravindra N. Singh, Jennifer Bates, Yama Dixit, Charly A. I. French, David A. Hodell, Penelope J. Jones, Carla Lancelotti, Frank Lynam, Sayantani Neogi, Arun K. Pandey, Danika Parikh, Vikas Pawar, David I. Redhouse, and Dheerendra P. Singh

Abstract :
This paper explores the nature and dynamics of adaptation and resilience in the face of a diverse and varied environmental and ecological context using the case study of South Asia’s Indus Civilization (ca. 3000–1300 BC). Most early complex societies developed in regions where the climatic parameters faced by ancient subsistence farmers were varied but rain falls primarily in one season. In contrast, the Indus Civilization developed in a specific environmental context that spanned a very distinct environmental threshold, where winter and summer rainfall systems overlap. There is now evidence to show that this region was directly subject to climate change during the period when the Indus Civilization was at its height (ca. 2500–1900 BC). The Indus Civilization, therefore, provides a unique opportunity to understand how an ancient society coped with diverse and varied ecologies and change in the fundamental environmental parameters. This paper integrates research carried out as part of the Land, Water and Settlement project in northwest India between 2007 and 2014. Although coming from only one of the regions occupied by Indus populations, these data necessitate the reconsideration of several prevailing views about the Indus Civilization as a whole and invigorate discussion about human-environment interactions and their relationship to processes of cultural transformation. 

Yog .

Tuesday, 31 January 2017

Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Dravidian Cognates

On this auspicious occasion of  Vasant Panchami, when the worship of the goddess of knowledge and arts Saraswati also happens , I present to you a special post, focusing on a special relationship between two language families, Indo-European and Dravidian . In this post, I show you the common roots and cognates :

1. Proto-Indo-European *kan *k’en-/*k’on-/*k’n̥- ‘to beget, to produce, to create,
to bring forth ' Latin Genus , Sanskrit Janati , Lithuanian Gentis etc etc.

Dravidian : Tamil kanru ‘calf, colt, young of various animals, sapling,
young tree’; Malayalam kannu ‘young of cattle (esp. buffalo calf), young
plantain trees around the mother plant’; Kannaḍa kanda ‘young child’,
kandu ‘calf, young plantain trees around the mother plant’; Telugu kandu
‘infant’, kanduvu ‘child’, kanu ‘to bear or bring forth, to beget’, kanubadi
‘produce’, kāncu ‘to bear, to produce, to bring forth’, kānupu ‘bringing
forth a child’etc etc .These Dravidian forms are strikingly similar  to the Germanic forms ( see the links on root ).

2. Proto-Indo-European- *gau ' ‘bullock, ox, cow’'.

Dravidian: Telugu kōḍiya, kōḍe ‘young bull’; Kolami kōḍi ‘cow’, kōṛe
‘young bullock’; Pengo kōḍi ‘cow’; Manḍa kūḍi ‘cow’; Kui kōḍi ‘cow, ox’;
Kuwi kōdi, kōḍi ‘cow’ .Also Sumerian guú ‘ox, bull, cow’, gud ‘bull, bullock, cow’. This particular root is shared only between PIE,PD and Sumerian .

Like the first, the similarity with some Kentum branches is strong.

3. Proto-Indo-European *sew(H)-/*sow(H)-/*su(H)- ‘to give birth’: Sanskrit
sū́te, sūyate ‘to beget, to procreate, to bring forth, to bear, to produce, to
yield’, suta-ḥ ‘son, child’, sūtí-ḥ ‘birth, production’, sūnú-ḥ ‘son, child,
offspring’; Avestan hunu-š ‘son’; Greek υἱύς, υἱός ‘son’; Old Irish suth
‘offspring’; Gothic sunus ‘son’; Old Icelandic sunr, sonr ‘son’; Swedish
son ‘son’; Danish søn ‘son’ (with ø from the pl.); Old English sunu ‘son’;
Old Frisian sunu ‘son’; Old Saxon sunu ‘son’; Dutch zoon ‘son’; Old High
German sunu ‘son’ (New High German Sohn); Lithuanian sūnùs ‘son’ .
 Tocharian A se, B soy ‘son’. Rix 1998a:487 (?) *seu̯H- ‘to bear, to give
birth’; Pokorny 1959:913—914 *seu-, (*seu̯ǝ-), *sū̆- ‘to bear, to give
birth’; Walde 1927—1932.II:469—470 *seu-, *sū̆-; Mann 1984—
1987:1331 *su-, 1335 *sūnus ‘son’, 1339 *sut- ‘offspring’; Watkins
1985:58 *seuǝ- and 2000:76 *seuǝ-‘to give birth’ .

 Dravidian: Tamil cēy ‘son, child; juvenility, youth’; Malayalam cēvala
‘child at the breast’; Tuḷu jēvu ‘child, lad, youth’, jōvu ‘child, lad, youth,
baby, female child’, jōkulu ‘children’; Parji cēpal ‘boy, lad’; Gadba
(Ollari) sēpal ‘boy, lad’, (Salur) sāpal ‘boy’; (?) Kuṛux jō̃xas ‘lad, youth,
servant’.

4. Proto-Indo-European *sen-/*sn̥- ‘old’: Sanskrit sána-ḥ ‘old, ancient’;
Avestan hanō ‘old’; Old Persian hanatā- ‘old age, lapse of time’; Latin
senex ‘old, aged’; Old Irish sen ‘old’; Welsh hên ‘old’, hyned ‘so old’, hŷn,
hynach ‘older’; Cornish hēn ‘old’; Breton hen ‘old’; Gothic sineigs ‘old’;
Lithuanian sẽnas ‘old’, sẽnis ‘old man’; Armenian hin ‘old’.

Dravidian : Gondi sēnāl ‘old man, senior’, sēnō ‘old woman’, (m.) senāl,
(f., nt.) seno ‘aged’, senāl ‘old man’, seno ‘old woman’; Kui senḍa ‘firstborn,
eldest’, senḍenju ‘founder of a race, early settler’.

5.  Proto-Indo-European *ghe/*gho  ‘to go, to leave, to depart; to abandon, to
forsake’: Sanskrit (reduplicated) já-hā-ti ‘to leave, to abandon, to desert, to
quit, to forsake, to relinquish’, (causative) hāpayati ‘to cause to leave or
abandon; to omit, to neglect; to fall short of, to be wanting’, hāni-ḥ ‘to release’; Greek (Homeric) (reduplicated) κιχᾱ́νω, (Attic) κιγχάνω ‘to
reach, hit, or light upon; to meet with, to find; (Homeric) to overtake, to
reach, to arrive at’, χῆρα (Ionic χήρη) ‘bereft of husband, widow’, χῆρος
‘widowed, bereaved’, χώρα ‘the space in which a thing is’, χωρέω ‘to
make room for another, to give way, to draw back, to retire, to withdraw;
to go forward, to move on or along’, χῶρος ‘piece of ground, ground,
place’, (adv.) χωρίς ‘separately, asunder, apart, by oneself or by
themselves’, (dat.) χήτει ‘in lack of’, χατέω ‘to crave, to long for, to have
need of, to lack’, χατίζω ‘to have need of, to crave; to lack, to be without’,
χατίζων ‘a needy, poor person’; Latin hērēs ‘heir’; Gothic gaidw ‘lack’;
Crimean Gothic geen ‘to go'.

Dravidian : Kuṛux kānā ‘to go, to lead to (as a road), to progress favorably,
to go on, to continue, to perish, to pass (of time), to come to an end, to
have diarrhea (stomach), to bring oneself to, to be able to’; Malto kale ‘to
go, to come to’; Brahui hining (pres. indef. kāv, kās, kāe, kān, kāre, kār;
pres.-fut. kāva, kāsa, kāik, kāna, kāre, kāra) ‘to go, to depart, to disappear,
to be past, to pass beyond, to be no longer fit for, to flow, to have diarrhea
(stomach)’.

6. Proto-Indo-European *gwenu- ‘jaw, cheek, chin’)

Dravidian: Tamil cenni, cennai ‘cheek’; Malayalam cennam ‘jaw, cheek’;
Kota keyṇ ‘cheek just in front of the ear’; KannaDa kenne ‘the upper
cheek’; Tuḷu kenni, kennè ‘cheek’ . .Again closer to Germanic etc .

7.  Proto-Indo-European *ghedh- (secondary o-grade form: *ghodh-) ‘to force,
drive, or press together; to join; to unite; to gather (together); to collect’ .
Dravidian: Tamil kiṭṭu (kiṭṭi-) ‘to draw near (in time or place); to be on
friendly terms with; to be attained, accomplished; to be clenched (as the
teeth in lockjaw); to approach, to attack, to meet, to tie, to bind’, kiṭṭa
‘near, close by’, kiṭṭam ‘nearness, vicinity’, kiṭṭi ‘clamps (used in torture,
etc.)’, kiṭṭinar ‘relations, friends, associates’, kiṭai (-pp-, -tt-) ‘(vb.) to beobtained, found; to come into one’s possession; to join, to come together;
to approach, to encounter; to oppose; (n.) comparison, likeness, equality’;
Malayalam kiṭa ‘approach, match, equality’, kiṭayuka ‘to knock against, to
quarrel, to be found or obtained’, kiṭaccal ‘meeting, quarrelling’, kiṭekka
‘to be obtained, to engage in’, kiṭṭuka ‘to come to hand, to be obtained, to
reach’, kiṭṭam ‘vicinity, nearness’, kiṭṭi ‘torture by pressing the hands
between two sticks’; Toda kiṭ- (kiṭy-) ‘to be caught (in crowd, by buffalo’s
horns, by promise that one must keep, etc.)’, kïḍ- ‘vicinity’; Kannaḍa kiṭṭu
‘to touch, to reach, to come to hand, to be obtained’, giṭṭisu ‘to cause
oneself to be reached’, kiṭṭi ‘torture in which hands, ears, or noses are
pressed between two sticks’, kiḍu ‘touching, approach’; Koḍagu kïṭṭ-
(kïṭṭi-) ‘to be gotten, to come into possession of’; Tuḷu kiṭṭa ‘proximity;
near’, giṭṭu ‘proximate, near’; Koraga kiṭṭi ‘to touch’; Telugu kiṭṭu ‘to
approach, to draw near, to agree, to suit’; Malto kiṭe ‘near, nigh’.

8.  Proto-Indo-European *ǵerh₂- '  to grow old, to mature' .
Dravidian : Tamil kir̤am, kir̤aṭu ‘old age; aged person, animal, or thing
(contemptuous)’, kir̤amai, kir̤avu ‘old’, kir̤avan, kir̤avōn ‘old man’, (f.)
kir̤ avi ‘old woman’, kir̤ atan ‘old fellow’ (used in contempt), (f.) kir̤aṭi ‘old
lady’ (used in contempt); Malayalam kir̤avan ‘old man’, (f.) kir̤ avi, kir̤atti
‘old woman’; Kannaḍa ker̤ava, ker̤iva ‘old man’; Tuḷu kīru̥ ‘ancient, old’.
Burrow—Emeneau 1984:145, no. 1579.

9. Proto-Indo-European *kher-/*khor-/*khr̥ - ‘edge, shore, bank’: Avestan
karana- ‘end, border, shore’; Farsi karān ‘shore, side’; Lithuanian krãštas
‘edge, verge, border, brim, bank’, krañtas ‘bank, seashore’; Latvian krasts
‘shore, bank (of a river)’, krants ‘cliff’; Russian krutój [крутой] ‘steep’,
krúča [круча] ‘steep slope’.

Dravidian : Tamil karai ‘shore, bank, ridge of a field, border of a cloth’;
Malayalam kara ‘shore, riverside, land (opposite to sea), colored border of
a cloth’, karal ‘border, margin, edge’; Kannaḍa kare ‘bank, shore,
boundary, border of a cloth’; Koḍagu kare ‘bank’; Tuḷu karè ‘seashore,
bank of a river, border, colored border of a cloth’; Telugu kara ‘shore,
bank’.

10 . Proto-Indo-European *khar- ‘hard, strong, firm’: Sanskrit karkaṭa-ḥ ‘crab’,
karkara-ḥ ‘hard, firm’; Greek καρκίνος ‘crab’, κάρτος, κράτος ‘strength,
might’, καρτερός ‘strong, stout, staunch, sturdy’, κρατύς ‘strong, mighty’;
Latin cancer (< *carcro-) ‘crab’; Gothic hardus ‘hard, stern’; Old
Icelandic harðr ‘hard, stern, severe’, herða ‘to make hard’; Norwegian
hard ‘hard, strong’; Swedish hård ‘hard, strong’; Danish haard ‘hard,
strong’; Old English heard ‘hard, strong, stern, severe, brave, stubborn’,heardian ‘to harden’, heardnes ‘hardness’, (adv.) hearde ‘hardly, firmly ' etc etc .

Dravidian : Tamil karumai ‘strength, greatness’; Malayalam karu, karu
‘stout, hard’, karuma ‘hardness, strength of a man’, karuman ‘one who is
strong and able’, karuttu ‘strength, vigor, power, fortitude, courage’;
Kannaḍa kara, karu ‘greatness, abundance, power’; Telugu karamu ‘much,
great, very’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:119, no. 1287. [(?) Tamil kār̤ ‘(vb.)
to become hard, mature; to be firm or strong in mind; to be implacable; (n.)
hardness, solidity or close grain (as of timber), core, strength of mind’,
kār̤ppu ‘close grain (as of the heart of timber), essence’, kār̤ i ‘great
strength, toughness, hardness’, kār̤ untu ‘heart or core of a tree’;
Malayalam kar̤ampu ‘pulp of fruit, pith, essence’; Kannaḍa kār̤ime, kāḷime
‘obstinacy, haughtiness’; (?) Parji kāṛ- ‘to expand hood (serpent)’.


11. Proto-Indo-European *kert’-/*kr̥ t’- ‘heart’: Hittite (nom.-acc. sg.) ki-ir
‘heart’, (gen. sg. kar-ti-ya-aš); Palaic (dat.-loc. sg.) ka-a-ar-ti ‘heart’;
Greek καρδία (poet. κήρ) ‘heart’; Armenian sirt ‘heart’; Latin cor ‘heart’
(gen. sg. cordis); Old Irish cride ‘heart’; Welsh craidd ‘center, heart’;
Cornish créz ‘middle’; Gothic hairtō ‘heart’; Old Icelandic hjarta ‘heart’;
Norwegian hjarta ‘heart’; Swedish hjärta ‘heart’; Danish hjerte ‘heart’;
Old English heorte ‘heart’; Old Frisian herte ‘heart’; Old Saxon herta
‘heart’; Dutch hart ‘heart’; Old High German herza ‘heart’ (New High
German Herz); Lithuanian širdìs ‘heart’, šerdìs ‘core, pith, heart’; Latvian
sird̃ s ‘heart’; Old Church Slavic srъdьce ‘heart’, srěda ‘center, middle,
midst’; Russian sérdce [сердце] ‘heart’; Slovak srdce ‘heart’. The
following (but with a different initial consonant: *gert’-/*gr̥ t’- ‘heart’)
may belong here as well: Sanskrit hṛ́daya- ‘heart; mind, soul; breast, chest,
stomach, interior’; Avestan zǝrǝd- ‘heart’; Baluchi zirdē ‘heart’ etc etc.

Dravidian: Malayalam karaḷ, karuḷ ‘lungs and heart, liver, bowels; heart,
mind’, kariḷ ‘heart’; Kota karl ‘heart, mind, desire’; Kannaḍa karuḷ,
karaḷu, karḷu, kaḷḷu ‘an entrail, the bowels; love’; Koḍagu karï ‘intestines’;
Tuḷu karalu̥, karlu̥ ‘the bowels, the liver’.

12.  Proto-Indo-European *kay- (extended form *kay-wo-) ‘alone’: Latin
caelebs ‘unmarried, single’; Sanskrit kévala-ḥ ‘exclusively one’s own,
alone’; Old Church Slavic cě-glъ ‘alone’; Latvian kaîls ‘barren, childless’.
Pokorny 1959:519 *kai-, *kai-u̯o-, *kai-u̯elo- ‘alone’; Walde 1927—
1932.I:326 *qai-; Mann 1984—1987:459 *kai- ‘alone, separate, only’, 460
*kailos ‘single, alone, deprived’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:267 *kaiwelo-;
Mallory—Adams 1997:12 *kai-u̯elos ‘alone’; De Vaan 2008:80; Walde—
Hofmann 1965—1972.I:130 *qaiu̯elo-, *qai-u̯o-, *qai-lo-; Ernout—
Meillet 1979:83.

Dravidian : Tamil kaimmai ‘widowhood, widow, lovelorn condition’,
kaintalai, kayini, kaini ‘widow’, kai-kkilai ‘unreciprocated love’; Tuḷu kaipoṇjavu ‘a single woman’ (poṇjavu, poṇjevu ‘a female in general, a grown-up woman’); Parji kētal, (NE.) kēṭal ‘widow’, kētub ‘widower’, kētub cind ‘orphan’; Gadba (Ollari) kēṭal ‘widow’.

13. Proto-Indo-European *kreue-  "raw flesh" (source also of Sanskrit kravih "raw flesh," krura- "bloody, raw, hard;" Greek kreas "flesh;" Latin crudus "not cooked," cruor "thick blood;" Old Irish cru, Lithuanian kraujas, Old Church Slavonic kruvi "blood;" Old English hrot "thick fluid, serum") .

Dravidian: Tamil kuruti ‘blood, red color’; Malayalam kuruti ‘blood’;
Kannaḍa kurudi ‘colored red water’; Tuḷu kurdi, kurudi ‘red liquid
prepared by mixing turmeric and lime, used for auspicious purposes’.

It is interesting as a friend points me , that IE root h₁rewdʰ "red" could be connected to this root too (It is similar to  Drav. kurud) .

14. Proto-Indo-European  (*k’en-/*k’on-/)*k’n- ‘knot, knob’: Old Icelandic
knappr ‘knob’, knúi ‘knuckle’, knúta ‘knuckle-bone, joint-bone’, knútr
‘knot’, knýttr ‘knotted, crippled’, knykill ‘small knot’, knöttr ‘ball’;
Norwegian knast ‘knot’; Swedish knagg ‘knot’; Old English cnotta ‘knot’;
Middle English cnap ‘knob’, cnag ‘knot, peg’, cnarre ‘knot’, cnarri
‘knotty, gnarled’, cnobbe ‘knob’, cnobbel ‘knob’, cnop ‘knob’, cnoppe
‘knob, bud’, cnorre ‘knot, excrescence’, cnottel ‘little knot’, cnotti
‘knotty’, cnottien ‘knot’, cnurned ‘gnarled, knotty’, cnokil ‘knuckle’;
Middle Dutch knolle ‘clod, ball’; Middle Low German knobbe ‘knot,
knob, bud’, knotte ‘knot, knob’, knökel ‘knuckle’; Middle High German
knolle ‘clod, ball’, knotze ‘knot, knob’; New High German Knast ‘knot’,
Knorren ‘knot, knotty protuberance’, Knopf ‘knot, knob, button’, Knolle
‘clod, lump; knot, knob, protuberance; bulb, tuber’, Knöchel ‘knuckle,
ankle (bone)’, Knochen ‘bone’, Knoten ‘knot’, Knubbe ‘knot’.

Dravidian : Tamil kaṇ ‘joint in bamboo or cane’, kaṇu ‘joint of bamboo,
cane, etc., knuckle, joint of the spine, vertebra’, kaṇukkai ‘wrist’, kaṇukkāl
‘ankle’; Malayalam kaṇ, kaṇu, kaṇṇu, kaṇpu ‘joint in knot or cane’,
kaṇavu ‘node of bamboo, cane, etc.’, kaṇakkai, kaṇaṅkai ‘wrist’, kaṇakkāl,
kaṇaṅkāl ‘ankle’, kaṇippu ‘articulation of limbs’; Kota kaṇ ‘joint of
bamboo’; Toda koṇ ‘joint of bamboo or cane’; Kannaḍa kaṇ ‘joint in
reeds, sticks, etc.’, gaṇalu ‘knuckle of the fingers, joint or knot of any
cane’, gaṇike ‘knot or joint’; Tuḷu kāra kaṇṇu̥ ‘ankle’; Telugu kanu, kannu
‘joint in cane or reed’, kaṇupu, gaṇupu ‘joint, knot, node (of bamboo,
sugarcane, etc.)’; Kolami gana ‘knot in tree’; Naikṛi khan ‘joint in
bamboo’; Gondi gana, ganakay ‘wrist’; Kuṛux xann ‘place on bamboo or
cane where side shoot was cut away’; Brahui xan ‘knot in wood’.

15. Proto-Indo-European *kwhel-/*k¦whol-/*k¦whl̥- ‘to go, to walk, to move
about’: Sanskrit cárati, calati ‘to move one’s self, to go, to walk, to move,to stir, to roam about, to wander’; Avestan carāiti ‘to go, to move’; Greek
πολέω ‘to go about, to range over’, πολεύω ‘to turn about, to go about’.

Dravidian: Tamil kulavu (kulavi-) ‘to walk, to move about’; Toda kwal-
(kwad-) ‘to go round and round (millet in a mortar pit, buffaloes in a pen),
to frisk about, to run about wasting time’.

16.   Proto-Indo-European *k¦whelo-, *k¦wholo-, (reduplicated) *k¦whe-k¦whlo-,
*k¦who-k¦whlo- ‘wheel’: Sanskrit cakrá-ḥ ‘wheel’; Pāḷi cakka- ‘wheel’; Hindi
cāk ‘any kind of wheel, millstone’; Avestan caxra- ‘wheel’; Greek κύκλος
‘a ring, circle; round; a wheel’, (adv.) κύκλῳ ‘in a circle or ring, round
about’; Latin colus ‘spinning wheel’; Old Icelandic hvel ‘wheel’, hjól, hvél
‘wheel’; Faroese hjól ‘wheel’; Norwegian hjul ‘wheel’; Swedish hjul
‘wheel’; Danish hjul ‘wheel’; Old English hwēol ‘wheel’; Middle Low
German wēl ‘wheel’; Dutch wiel ‘wheel’; Tocharian A kukäl, B kokale
‘cart, wagon, chariot’; Old Church Slavic kolo ‘wheel’; Russian kolesó
[колесо] ‘wheel’; Czech kolo ‘wheel’; Serbo-Croatian kȍlo ‘wheel, circle’.

 Dravidian: Tamil kāl ‘wheel, cart’; Kannaḍa gāli ‘wheel’; Tuḷu gāli
‘wheel’; Telugu kalu ‘a carriage wheel’, gānu, gālu ‘wheel’.
The previous one is obviously related too.According to theory advocating for steppe scenario , this root for wheel, should be absent, in languages outside IE!.

17. Proto-Indo-European *k¦wher-/*k¦whor-/*k¦whr̥ - ‘to cut’: Hittite (3rd sg. pres.
act.) ku-e-ir-zi ‘to cut, to cut up, to cut off’, (3rd pl. pres. act.) ku-ra-an-zi,
(instr. sg.) ku-ru-uz-zi-it ‘cutter’, (1st sg. pret. act.) ku-e-ir-šu-un ‘to cut
(off)’, (acc. sg.) ku-ra-an-na-an ‘section, area’, (nom. sg.) ku-e-ra-aš,
ku-ra-aš ‘field, parcel, territory, (land) area, precinct, subdivision’; Luwian
(3rd sg. pres. act.) ku-wa-ar-ti ‘to cut’ (?), kursawar ‘cut (off)’;
Hieroglyphic Luwian kura/i- ‘to cut’; Welsh pryd (< *k¦r̥ -tu-) ‘time’;
Oscan -pert in petiro-pert ‘four times’; Sanskrit -kṛt  .

Dravidian: Tamil kurai ‘(vb.) to cut, to reap; (n.) piece, section’, kuru
(kuruv-, kurr-) ‘to pluck’; Malayalam kurekka ‘to cut off’; Koḍagu korv-
(kort-) ‘to make a fallen branch into a club’; Toda kwarf- (kwart-) ‘to cut’;
Kannaḍa kore, kori ‘to cut, to break through, to bore, to pierce’, kori ‘a
large branch cut off from a thorn-bush’, kore ‘cutting, cut-off piece’,
koreyuvike ‘cutting, etc.’, koreta, korata ‘act of cutting, etc.; the piercing of
cold’, korcu, koccu ‘to cut away, to cut up, to cut to pieces’;

18. Proto-Indo-European *k¦wher-/*k¦whor- ‘vessel, pot’: Sanskrit carú-ḥ
‘vessel, pot’; Old Icelandic hverr ‘kettle, cauldron’; Old English hwer ‘pot,
bowl, kettle, cauldron’; Old High German (h)wer ‘cauldron’; Old Irish
co(i)re ‘cauldron’; Middle Welsh peir ‘cauldron’. Pokorny 1959:642
**kßer-’ 'dish'; Walde 1927—1932.I:518 *qßer-; Mann 1984—1987:1028 *qu̯ernā, -is (*qu̯erən-) ‘pot, shell, skull’, 1028 *qu̯eros, -is, -us ‘pot, pan,
vessel, cauldron’; Watkins 1985:34 *k¦er- ‘something shaped like a dish
or shell’; Mallory—Adams 1997:443 *k¦werus ‘large cooking pot,
cauldron’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:377; Orël 2003:200 Proto-Germanic
*xweraz; Kroonen 2013:265 Proto-Germanic *hwera- ‘kettle’; De Vries
1977:272.

 Dravidian: Gondi karvi ‘narrow-mouthed earthen vessel for oil or liquor’;
Koḍagu karava ‘clay pot with narrow neck’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:118,
no. 1273(a). Telugu gurigi ‘a very small earthen pot’; Gondi kurvi ‘earthen
cooking pot’, kurvī ‘earthen jar’, kuṛvī ‘pitcher (black, for cooking)’; Kui
kui ‘pot’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:162, no. 1797; Krishnamurti 2003:8
*kur-Vwi ‘small pot’.

19. Proto-Indo-European *k’¦werbh-/*k’¦worbh-/*k’¦wr̥bh-, *k’¦wrebh- ‘the inside, the middle, interior, inward part’: Sanskrit gárbha-ḥ ‘womb, the inside,middle, interior’; Avestan garəwō ‘womb’, gǝrǝbuš ‘the young of an
animal’; Greek βρέφος ‘the babe in the womb, fetus’; Old Church Slavic
žrěbę, žrěbьcь ‘foal’. Mann 1984―1987:370 *gu̯rebhnos, -es-
(*gu̯rebhmn̥, -ōn) ‘fetus, infant, animal’; Mallory—Adams 1997:615
*g¦erbhen-, *g¦rebhos; Hofmann 1966:39; Boisacq 1950:133 *gßrebh-os;
Frisk 1970―1973.I:266 *gßrebh-, *gßerbh-; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:195
*g¦er-bh-/*g¦r-ebh-. Mayrhofer (1956―1980.I:329), on the other hand,
compares Sanskrit gárbha-ḥ with Greek δελφύς ‘womb’, as does Frisk
(1970―1973.I:363), while Chantraine (1968—1980.I:195) notes that
Sanskrit gárbha-ḥ can go with either Greek βρέφος or δελφύς.
Buck 1949:4.47 womb; 12.37 middle. Möller 1911:101; Bomhard—Kerns
1994:489, no. 336.

Dravidian: Tamil karu ‘fetus, embryo, egg, germ, young of animal’,
karuppai ‘womb’, karuvam ‘fetus, embryo’; Malayalam karu ‘embryo,
yolk’; Kota karv ‘fetus of animal, larva of bees, pregnant (of animals)’;
Telugu karuvu ‘fetus’, kari ‘uterus of animals’; Parji kerba ‘egg’; Gadba
(Ollari) karbe ‘egg’; Gondi garba ‘egg’.

20.  Proto-Indo-European *khath- ‘to fight’: Sanskrit śátru-ḥ ‘enemy, foe,
rival’; Prakrit sattu- ‘enemy, foe’; Old Irish cath ‘battle’; Welsh cad ‘war’;
Old Icelandic (in compounds) höð- ‘war, slaughter’; Old English (in compounds) heaðu- ‘war, battle’; Old High German (in compounds) hadu-
‘fight, battle’; Middle High German hader ‘quarrel, strife’ (New High
German Hader); Old Church Slavic kotora ‘battle’; Hittite kattu- ‘enmity,
strife’.

Dravidian: Tamil katavu (katavi-) ‘to be angry with, to be displeased with,
to quarrel with’, katam ‘anger’, katar̤ ‘to be angry with, to be displeased
with, to be furious’, katar̤vu ‘fury, heat, vehemence’, kati ‘to be angry
with’; Malayalam katam ‘wrath’, kataykkuka ‘to get angry’, katarppu
‘getting angry’; Kannaḍa kati, khati, kāti, khāti ‘anger, wrath’; Kolami
ka·ti ‘anger, hate’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:112, no. 1186. Tamil kātu
(kāti-) ‘to kill, to murder, to cut, to divide’, kātu ‘murder’, kātal ‘killing,
fighting, cutting, breaking’; Kannaḍa kādu ‘to wage war, to fight, to
contend with’, kāduha ‘fighting’; Tuḷu kāduni ‘to quarrel, to fight, to
wrestle’, kādaḍuni ‘to fight’, kādāṭa ‘a fight, war, battle’.

21. Proto-Indo-European *k’ebh-/*k’obh- ‘(vb.) to munch, to chew; (n.) jaw’:
Old Irish gop (Modern Irish gob) ‘beak, mouth’; New High German Kebe
‘fish-gill’; Lithuanian žėbiù, žė̃bti ‘to munch’; Czech žábra ‘fish-gill’.
Pokorny 1959:382 *ĝep(h)-, *ĝebh- ‘jaw, mouth; to eat’. Sanskrit Cibuka .

Dravidian: Tamil kavuḷ ‘cheek, temple or jaw of elephant’; Malayalam
kaviḷ ‘cheek’; Tuḷu kauḷu ‘the cheek’, kavuṇḍrasa, kavuḍrasa ‘cancer of
the cheek’; Parji gavla, (metathesis in) galva ‘jaw’.Germanic forms are close again.

22.  Proto-Indo-European *k’¦wer-/*k’¦wor-/*k’¦wr̥ - ‘to make a sound, to call, to
call out, to praise’: Sanskrit gṛṇā́ti ‘to call, to call out, to invoke, to praise,
to extol’, gī́r ‘words, speech, voice, language, invocation, praise, verse’,
guráte ‘to salute’, gūrtí-ḥ ‘approval, praise’; Latin grātus ‘pleasing,
welcome, agreeable’, grātēs ‘thanks, gratitude’; Old High German queran
‘to sigh’ (New High German quarren); Lithuanian giriù, gìrti ‘to praise, to
commend .etc etc.

Dravidian: Tamil kūru (kūri-) ‘to speak, to assert, to cry out the price, to
cry aloud, to proclaim’, kūrram ‘word’, kūrru ‘proclamation, utterance,
word’; Malayalam kūruka ‘to speak, to proclaim’, kūrru ‘call, cry of men,
noise’, kūrram ‘cry (as for help)’; Kannaḍa gūrṇisu, gūrmisu ‘to murmur
or roar (as water of a river or the sea), to sound (as a trumpet), to roar or
bellow, to cry aloud’; Telugu ghūrṇillu ‘to sound, to resound’ (gh- is from
Sanskrit ghūrṇ- ‘to move to and fro’ [> Telugu ghūrṇillu ‘to whirl, to turn
around’]) ; Tuḷu gūruni ‘to hoot’.

23. Proto-Indo-European *khreyH-/*khriH- (> *khrī-) ‘(adj.) better, superior,
glorious, illustrious; (n.) high rank’: Sanskrit śréyas- ‘more splendid or
beautiful, more excellent or distinguished, superior, preferable, better’, śrī-
‘high rank, power, might, majesty, royal dignity; light, luster, radiance,
splendor, glory, beauty, grace, loveliness’; Avestan srayah- ‘fairer, more
beautiful’, srī- ‘beauty, fairness’, srīra- ‘fair, beautiful’; Greek κρείων,
κρέων ‘ruler, lord, master’.

Dravidian: Tamil cira ‘to be eminent, illustrious; to surpass; to be
abundant; to be auspicious; to be graceful; to rejoice’, cirantōr ‘the great,
the illustrious, gods, relatives, ascetics’, cirappu ‘pre-eminence, pomp,
abundance, wealth, happiness, esteem’, ciravu ‘meritorious deed’;
Malayalam cirakka (cirannu) ‘to be glorious’; Kannaḍa serapu
‘hospitality, honor, festival’.

24 .  Proto-Indo-European *hew- [*haw-] ‘to long for, to desire’: Sanskrit ávati
‘to be pleased, to strive for’, áva-ḥ ‘favor, protection, gratification’;
Avestan avaiti ‘to protect, to help’, avah- ‘protection’; Latin aveō ‘to long
for, to desire’, avidus ‘passionately desiring, longing for’; Welsh ewyllys
‘will’, awydd ‘desire’ (Latin loan) .

Dravidian: Tamil āvu (āvi-) ‘to desire’, avāvu (avāvi-) ‘to desire, to crave
for, to covet’, avā ‘desire for a thing, covetousness’; Malayalam āvikka ‘to
desire’, āval ‘desire’.
25 . Proto-Indo-European *¸hhel-wo- [*hh¸al-wo-] ‘hollow, cavity’: Latin alvus
‘belly, womb’, alveus ‘a hollow, cavity’; Hittite (gen. sg.) ḫal-lu-wa-aš
‘hollow, pit’, (gen. sg.) ḫal-lu-u-wa-aš ‘hollow, deep’, (denominative verb,
3rd sg. pret. act.) ḫal-lu-wa-nu-ut ‘to put down (deep), to lower, to let
deteriorate’. Pokorny 1959:88—89 *u-lo-s (*ēu-l-) ‘pipe, tube; a hollow,
elongated cavity’; Walde 1927—1932.I:25—26 *aulo-s (: *ēul-); Mann
1984—1987:18 *alu̯os, -i̯os, -i̯ə ‘hollow, channel, cavity’; Watkins 1985:4
*aulo- and 2000:6 *aulo- ‘hole, cavity’ (variant [metathesized] form
*alwo-); Mallory—Adams 1997:96 *høelu̯os ~ *høeulos ‘elongated cavity,
hollow’; Puhvel 1984— .3:47—49; Ernout—Meillet 1979:36; Walde—
Hofmann 1965—1972.I:34—35 *aul-, *au̯el-; De Vaan 2008:25 *høeulo-
‘tube, belly’. Not related to: Greek αὐλός ‘any tube or pipe; flute’, αὐλών
‘a hollow way, defile, glen; a canal, aqueduct, trench; a channel, strait’;
Lithuanian aũlas ‘top (of a boot)’, aulỹs ‘beehive’; Bulgarian úlej
‘beehive’; Norwegian (dial.) aul, aule ‘pipe’. In view of Hittite (nom. sg.)
a-ú-li-iš ‘tube-shaped organ in the neck, throat (?), windpipe (?)’, without
initial a-coloring laryngeal, the Greek, Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic forms,
together with the Hittite, must be derived from Proto-Indo-European
*hewlo-s [*hawlos] (traditional *oeeu̯lo-s) ‘pipe, tube’ and, by extension,
‘any tube-shaped object’. Also Sanskrit Aluka Latin  Alum (uncertain plant/root), Alium (garlic).

Dravidian: Tamil aḷai ‘anthill, hole in the ground, hollow in a tree, cave’;
Malayalam aḷa ‘hole (in trees, in the ground)’, aḷḷāppu ‘hole, hollow’;
Beṭṭa Kuruba aḷe ‘hole’; Kota aḷ ‘cave’; Toda oḷb ‘animal’s den, cave’;
Telugu laga ‘hole, burrow’; Kuṛux alap ‘hollow place underground,
cavern’, lātā ‘hole, cavity, den’.

26.  Proto-Indo-European *¸hher(H)- [*¸hhar(H)-] ‘to plow’: Hittite (3rd sg.
pres.) ḫar-aš-zi ‘to plow’; Greek ἀρόω ‘to plow’; Latin arō ‘to plow’; Old
Irish airim ‘to plow’; Gothic arjan ‘to plow’; Old Icelandic erja ‘to plow’;
Old English erian ‘to plow’, ierþ ‘plowing’; Old High German erran ‘to
plow’; Lithuanian ariù, árti ‘to plow, to till’; Old Church Slavic ralu ‘a
plow’, orjǫ, orati ‘to plow’; Tocharian A āre ‘a plow’  etc.

Dravidian: Tamil araka ‘a plow with bullocks’; Malto are ‘a plow’.

27. Proto-Indo-Europeanhhor-/*¸hhr̥ - ‘eagle’: Hittite ḫara(n)- (< *¸hhr̥ -n-)
(nom. sg. ḫa-a-ra-aš, gen. sg. ḫa-ra-na-aš) ‘eagle’, (?) ḫarrani- or
ḫurrani- name of an ornithomatic bird; Palaic ḫa-ra-a-aš ‘eagle’; Greek
ὄρνις ‘bird’; Armenian oror ‘kite, gull’; Welsh eryr ‘eagle’; Gothic ara
‘eagle’; Old Icelandic (poet.) ari, örn (< *arnu-) (gen. sg. arnar, acc. örnu,
pl. ernir) ‘eagle’; Old English earn ‘eagle’ (Middle English ern(e), earn);
Old High German aro, arn ‘eagle’ (New High German [poetic] Aar);
Lithuanian erẽlis (dial. arẽlis) ‘eagle’; Latvian èrglis ‘eagle’; Old Prussian
arelie ‘eagle’; Old Church Slavic orьlъ ‘eagle’; Russian orël [орëл]
‘eagle’ etc etc.

Dravidian: Tamil eruvai ‘a kind of kite whose head is white and whose
body is brown, eagle’; Malayalam eruva ‘eagle, kite’.

28. Proto-Indo-European *¸hhew-r- [*¸hhaw-r-]/*¸hhow-r-/*¸hhu-r-, *¸hhw-er-
/*¸hhw-or- ‘(vb.) to sprinkle, to spray, to rain; (n.) rain, moisture’: Sanskrit
vā́ri ‘water, rain, fluid’; Avestan vairi- ‘lake’, vār- ‘to rain’; Hittite (3rd
pl.) ḫur-na-an-zi ‘to sprinkle’, ḫur-na-a-iš ‘spray’, (3rd pl.) ḫu-u-wa-raan-
zi ‘to sprinkle’; Palaic (3rd sg. pres. act.) ḫu-wa-ar-ni-na-i ‘to sprinkle’;
Tocharian A wär, B war ‘water’; Greek οὖρον ‘urine’, ῥαίνω (< *Hwrn̥-
yō) ‘to sprinkle, to be sprinkle’; Latin ūrīna ‘urine’; Old Irish feraim ‘to
pour’; Old Icelandic aurr ‘moist earth, clay, mud’, ver ‘sea’, úr ‘light rain,
drizzle’, ýra ‘to drizzle’; Swedish (dial.) örja ‘swamp’; Old English ēar
‘sea’, wbr ‘spray’.

Dravidian: Tuḷu barakelu̥ ‘inundation’; Telugu varada ‘flood, torrent,
inundation, deluge’, varru ‘flow, flood’; Parji vered ‘flood’; Konḍa urda
‘flood’; Kuwi varda pīyu ‘torrential rain’, vāru ‘flood’.

29. Proto-Indo-European *¸hhul- (> *¸hhol-) ‘to smite, to destroy’: Hittite (3rd
sg. pres.) ḫu-ul-la-a-i ‘to smite, to destroy’, (ptc.) ḫu-ul-ḫu-li-ya-an-te-eš
‘smitten’, ḫu-ul-la-an-za-iš ‘battle’; Greek ὄλλῡμι ‘to destroy, to make an
end of’, –ëåèñïò ‘ruin, destruction, death’; Latin ab-oleō ‘to destroy’ .

Dravidian: Tamil ula ‘to become diminished, to be wasted, to be devoid of,
to die, to terminate’, ulakkai ‘end, ruin, death’, ulappu ‘wasting, perishing,
defect, death, limit’, ulai ‘to perish, to be ruined, to ruin’, ulaivu ‘ruin,
destruction, defeat, trouble, poverty’; Malayalam ulakkuka ‘to shrink up’,
ulayuka ‘to be impoverished, ruined’, ulaccal, ulavu ‘ruin’.

30.  Proto-Indo-European *an "on, upon, above" Greek ana (prep.) "up, on, upon; up to, toward; throughout; back, backwards; again, anew,"

Dravidian :  Tamil aṇ ‘upper part’, aṇa ‘to lift the head’, aṇar ‘to rise, to
move upwards’, aṇavu (aṇavi-) ‘to go upward, to ascend’, aṇṇal
‘greatness, exaltation, superiority, great man, king, god’, aṇṇā ‘to look
upward, to gape, to hold the head erect’; Malayalam aṇṇa ‘upwards,
above’, aṇṇal ‘high, God, esp. Arhat’, aṇṇā ‘looking upwards’; Kannaḍa
aṇṇe, aṇṇa, aṇa ‘excellence, purity’; Tuḷu aṇāvuni, aṇṇāvuni ‘to look up,
to lift up the face, to gaze’.

31. Proto-Indo-European *¸¦hhwel-/*¸¦hhwol-/*¸¦hhwl̥- ‘to draw, to pull, to tear out’:
Latin vellō ‘to pluck, to pull, to tear out’; Lithuanian velkù, vil͂kti ‘to drag,
to pull’; Old Church Slavic vlěkǫ, vlěšti ‘to draw, to drag’; Avestan (in
compounds) varək- ‘to draw’; Gothic wilwan ‘to rob, to plunder’, wilwa
‘robber’ .

Dravidian : Tamil vali ‘to draw, to pull, to row; to have contortions or
convulsions’, vali, valippu ‘pulling, dragging, spasm, convulsion’;
Malayalam vali ‘drawing, pull, tug, spasm’, valikka ‘to draw, to drag, to
row; to have spasms’, valippikka ‘to cause to pull’, valippu ‘drawing,
pulling, spasm’, valiyuka ‘to be drawn, to extend, to have spasmodic pain’;
Koḍagu bali- (balip-, balic-) ‘to snatch, to pull’, balip- ‘the act of
dragging’; Koraga bali ‘to pull’; Kui velba- (ves-) ‘(vb.) to pull, to pull up;
(n.) pulling’.

32. Proto-Indo-European¦hhwet’- ‘to say, to speak’: Sanskrit vāda-ḥ ‘speech,
discourse, talk, utterance, statement’, vádati ‘to speak, to say, to utter, to
tell, to report, to speak to, to talk with, to address’; Greek (?) ἀείδω  ‘to sing’,
αὐδάω ‘to utter sounds, to speak’, αὐδή (Doric αὐδά) ‘the human voice,
speech’, ἀηδώ, ἀηδών ‘nightingale’; Lithuanian vadinù, vadìnti ‘to call, to
name’.

Dravidian : Tamil vataru (vatari-) ‘to chatter, to prate, to be talkative, to
lisp, to abuse’; Kannaḍa odaru ‘to sound, to cry aloud, to shout, to shriek,
to howl’, odarukive ‘sounding, crying aloud’; Tuḷu badaritana
‘defamation’; Telugu vadaru, vaduru ‘to prattle, to prate, to babble, to
chatter, to jabber’, vadarũbōtu ‘prattler, babbler’.

33. Proto-Indo-European *wal- ‘to be strong’: Latin valeō ‘to be strong’; Old
Irish faln-, foln- (in deponent forms) ‘to rule’, flaith (< *wlati-) ‘lordship’; Welsh gwledig ‘prince’, gwlad ‘country’; Gothic waldan ‘to rule, to
govern’; Old Icelandic valda ‘to wield, to rule over’, vald ‘power,
authority’; Swedish våla ‘to cause, to be the cause of’; Old English
geweald ‘power’, wealdan ‘to have control over, to wield (weapon); to
govern; to possess; to cause’, gewealden ‘under control, subjected’,
wealdend ‘ruler, king, controller’, gewieldan ‘to overpower, to subdue, to
domesticate’, wielde ‘strong, victorious’; Old Frisian walda ‘to have power
over, to rule over’, wald ‘power, control’; Old Saxon waldan ‘to rule, to
have control over, to govern’, giwald ‘power, control’; Old High German
waltan ‘to rule, to govern’ (New High German walten), giwalt ‘power,
control’ (New High German Gewalt); Lithuanian valdaũ, valdýti ‘to
govern’, valdõnas ‘ruler, lord, master’; Old Church Slavic vladǫ, vlasti ‘to
rule’, vlastь ‘power’; Tocharian A wäl, B walo ‘king’, A/B wlāw- ‘to
control’, B wawlāwar, wlāwalñe ‘control’  Sanskrit bala 'power , strength , might , vigour , force , validity etc etc.

Dravidian :  Tamil val ‘strong, hard, forceful, skilful’, vallamai, vallam,
vallai ‘strength’, vali ‘(vb.) to be strong, hard; to compel; (n.) strength,
power’, valiya ‘strong, big’, valuppu ‘firmness, strength’, valu ‘(vb.) to be
strong or hard; (n.) strength, skill, ability’; Malayalam val, valu, valiya
‘strong, powerful, great’, valluka ‘to be able, strong’; Kannaḍa bal ‘to
grow strong or firm’, bali ‘to increase; to grow; to grow strong, stout; to
become tight, firm, hard; to increase (tr.); to make strong, firm’, bal(u),
bolu ‘strength, firmness, bigness, greatness, abundance, excess’, balisu ‘to
make strong’; Tuḷu bala ‘strength’, Koḍagu bala ‘strength, power’, ballyë
‘great’; Telugu vali ‘big, large’, valamu ‘largeness, stoutness’, baliyu ‘to
grow fat, to increase’, baluvu ‘strength, intensity; heavy, great, excessive,
big, strong, severe’; Gadba valan ‘thick, stout’. Burrow—Emeneau
1984:476—477, no. 5276; Krishnamurti 2003:394 *wal ‘strong’.

34. Proto-Indo-European *wel-/*wol-/*wl̥- ‘to turn, to roll, to revolve’:
Sanskrit válati, válate ‘to turn, to turn around, to turn to’;Armenian gelum
‘to twist, to press’, glem ‘to roll’, glor ‘round’; Greek εἰλέω (< *+ελ-ν-έω)
‘to roll up, to pack close, to wind, to turn around, to revolve’, εἰλύω ‘to
enfold, to enwrap’; Latin volvō ‘to roll, to wind, to turn around, to twist
around’; Old Irish fillid ‘to fold, to bend’; Gothic af-walwjan ‘to roll
away’, at-walwjan ‘to roll to’; Old Icelandic valr ‘round’, velta ‘to roll’,
válka ‘to toss to and fro, to drag with oneself’, válk ‘tossing to and fro
(especially at sea)’; Old English wielwan ‘to roll’, wealwian ‘to roll’,
wealte ‘a ring’, wealcan ‘to roll, to fluctuate (intr.); to roll, to whirl, to turn,
to twist (tr.)’, wealcian ‘to roll (intr.)’, gewealc ‘rolling’, welung
‘revolution (of a wheel)’; Middle English walken ‘to walk, to roll, to toss’,
walkien ‘to walk’; Middle Dutch welteren ‘to roll’, walken ‘to knead, to
press’; Old High German walzan ‘to roll, to rotate, to turn about’ (New
High German wälzen), walken, walchen ‘to knead, to roll paste’; Tocharian
B wäl- ‘to curl’.

Dravidian: Tamil vaḷai ‘to surround, to hover around, to walk around, to
move about (as fetus in the womb)’, veḷaivu ‘circle, circumference’,
vaḷaiyam ‘ring, circle, bracelet, ambit’, vaḷāvu (vaḷāvi-) ‘to surround’,
vaḷākam ‘enclosing, surrounding’; Malayalam vaḷayuka ‘to surround’,
vaḷekka ‘to enclose’, vaḷaccal ‘enclosing’, vaḷayal ‘surrounding’, vaḷa
‘ring, bracelet’; Kota vaḷc- (vaḷc-) ‘to walk in a circle, to make round’, vaḷ
‘bangle’, vaḷ ca·rym ‘all around’; Kannaḍa baḷasu ‘(vb.) to go in a circle or
round, to walk or wander about, to be surrounded, to surround; (n.) act of
surrounding or encompassing, what surrounds, state of being circuitous,
one round or turn (as of a rope, etc.)’, baḷe ‘ring, armlet, bracelet’; Telugu
balayu ‘to surround’, valayu ‘to turn around (intr.)’.

35. Proto-Indo-European *wem-/*wom-/*wm̥ - ‘to vomit, to spit up’: Sanskrit
vámiti, vamati ‘to vomit, to spit up, to eject, to emit’; Avestan vam- ‘to
vomit’; Greek ἐμέω ‘to vomit, to throw up’; Latin vomō ‘to vomit, to throw
up’; Old Icelandic váma ‘qualm, ailment’, vámr ‘a loathsome person’,
vKma ‘nausea, sea sickness’; Lithuanian vemiù, vémti ‘to vomit, to throw
up’.

Dravidian: Tamil umi ‘to spit, to gargle’, uminīr ‘spittle, saliva’, umivu
‘spitting’, umir̤ ‘to spit, to gargle, to emit, to vomit’; Malayalam umiyuka,
umikka ‘to spit out’, umi, umir̤u ‘spittle’, umir̤ka ‘to spit, to emit’; Koraga
umi ‘saliva’; Kannaḍa ummalu, ummulu ‘phlegm, mucus’; Telugu umiyu
‘to spit, to spit out’, ummi ‘spittle, saliva’.

36.  Proto-Indo-European *wer- ‘to say, to speak, to tell’: Greek εἴρω (<
*+ερɩ̯ω) ‘to say, to speak, to tell’; Hittite (3rd sg. pres.) ú-e-ri-ya-zi ‘to
invite, to summon, to name’; Palaic (3rd sg. pres.) ú-e-er-ti ‘to say, to call’;
Latin verbum ‘word’; Gothic waurd ‘word’; Old Icelandic orð ‘word’,orðigr ‘wordy’, yrða ‘to speak’; Old English word ‘word’, ge-wyrd(e)
‘conversation’, wordig ‘talkative’; Old Frisian word ‘word’; Old Saxon
word ‘word’; Dutch woord ‘word’; Old High German wort ‘word’ (New
High German Wort); Old Prussian (nom. sg. m.) wīrds, wirds ‘word’ (acc.
sg. m. wirdan); Lithuanian var͂das ‘name’.

Dravidian *verr- ‘to say, to speak, to tell’: Gondi vehānā ‘to tell’;
Konḍa veʀ- ‘to speak, to tell’; Pengo vec- (vecc-) ‘to speak’; Manḍa veh-
‘to tell, to say’; Kui vespa (vest-) ‘to say, to speak, to tell’; Kuṛux bārnā ‘to
be called, termed; to have a title’; Malto báce ‘to relate, to tell’.

37. Proto-Indo-European *welH-/*wl̥H-  to well up, to surge, to flow forth, to boil up; (n.) surge, wave’: Sanskrit ūrmí-ḥ ‘wave, billow’; Avestan varəmi- ‘wave’; Gothic *wulan
‘to seethe’; Old Icelandic vella ‘to boil; to well up, to swarm’; Old English
weallan ‘to be agitated, to rage, to toss, to well, to bubble, to seethe, to
foam, to be hot, to boil; to flow, to swarm; to rise (of a river)’, wiell
‘fountain, spring’, wielm ‘boiling, surging, raging; flowing, bursting forth’;
Old Saxon wallan ‘to surge, to well up, to boil up’; Old High German
wella ‘wave’ (New High German Welle), wallan ‘to bubble, to simmer, to
boil, to seethe; to undulate, to float, to flow, to wave’ (New High German
wallen); Lithuanian vilnìs ‘wave’; Old Church Slavic vlъna ‘wave’; Czech
vlna ‘wave’; Polish wełna ‘wave’; Bulgarian vəlná ‘wave’.

Dravidian: Tamil veḷḷam ‘flood, deluge, sea, wave’; Malayalam veḷḷam
‘water’; Kannaḍa beḷḷa ‘flood’; Tuḷu boḷḷa ‘flood, inundation’; Telugu velli, vellika ‘flow, flood, stream’, velluva ‘flood, inundation’; (?) Brahui
bēl ‘large hill-torrent’. Again Germanic is close.

38. Proto-Indo-European *wet’-/*ut’- (secondary o-grade form: *wot’-) ‘(vb.)
to wet, to moisten; (n.) water’: Luwian (dat. sg.) ú-i-ti ‘water’; Hittite
(nom.-acc. sg.) wa-a-tar ‘water’ (gen. sg. ú-i-te-na-aš, nom.-acc. pl. ú-ida-
a-ar); Sanskrit udán ‘water’, ud-, und- (unátti, undati) ‘to flow, to wet,
to bathe’; Greek ὕδωρ ‘water’ (gen. sg. ὕδατος [< Pre-Greek *udn̥tos]);
Armenian get ‘river’; Umbrian utur ‘water’; Gothic watō ‘water’ (gen. sg.
watins); Old Icelandic vatn ‘water’, vátr ‘wet’; Old Swedish vKtur ‘water’
(Modern Swedish vatten); Norwegian vatn ‘water’; Old English wbt ‘wet,
moist, rainy’, wbtan ‘to wet, to moisten, to water’, wKter ‘water’; Old
Frisian water, weter ‘water’; Old Saxon watar ‘water’; Old High German
wazzar ‘water’ (New High German Wasser); Latvian ûdens ‘water’; Old
Church Slavic voda ‘water’; Russian vodá [вода] ‘water’

Dravidian: Tamil ōtam ‘moisture, dampness, flood, sea, wave’; Malayalam
ōtam ‘dampness in rainy season’; Kannaḍa odde ‘wetness, dampness,
moisture’; Tuḷu odde ‘wetness, dampness, moisture; wet’, veddè ‘moist,
wet’; Naiki (of Chanda) vad, vod ‘dew’.

39. Proto-Indo-European *wen(H)-/*wn̥(H)- (secondary o-grade form:
*won(H)-) ‘to strive for, to wish for, to desire’: Sanskrit vánati, vanóti ‘to like, to love, to wish, to desire; to gain, to acquire, to procure; to conquer,
to win, to become master of, to possess’, vánas- ‘longing, desire’, vaní-ḥ
‘wish, desire’, vanita-ḥ ‘solicited, asked, wished for, desired, loved’, vanú-ḥ,
vanús- ‘zealous, eager’; Avestan vanaiti ‘to win, to strive for, to conquer’;
Latin venus ‘charm, loveliness, attractiveness; sexual love’, vēnor ‘a hunt’,
venia ‘grace, indulgence, favor’, veneror ‘to ask reverently, to beseech
with awe; to revere, to respect, to worship, to honor’; Old Irish fine ‘a
family’; Gothic wēns ‘hope’, winnan ‘to suffer’, winna ‘passion’ etc.

Dravidian: Tamil vēṇṭu (vēṇṭi-) ‘to want, to desire, to beg, to entreat, to
request’, vēṇṭum, vēṇum ‘it will be required, necessary, indispensable; it
must’, vēṇṭām ‘it will not be required, necessary, indispensable; it must
not’, vēṇṭal ‘desiring, petition’, vēṇṭāmai ‘aversion, dislike, absence of
desire, contentment’, vēṇṭār ‘those who have no desires; enemies’, vēṇṭiya ‘indispensable, required, sufficient, many’, vēṇṭiyavan ‘friend, wellwisher’,
vēṇṭunar ‘those who wish for or desire a thing’, vēṇ ‘desire’;
Malayalam vēṇam, vēṇṭum ‘it must, ought, is desired’, vēṇ ‘necessary’,
vēṇṭa ‘useful, required’, vēṇṭu ‘must’, vēṇṭa ‘must not, need not’, vēṇṭuka
‘being necessary, friendship’, vēṇṭikka ‘to make necessary, to procure, to
acquire’; Kannaḍa bēṭa, bēṇṭa ‘longings, sexual passion, amorous
pleasure’; Telugu vēḍu ‘to pray, to beg, to ask for, to wish, to desire’,
vēḍuka ‘pleasure, joy, desire, wish, fun’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:504—
505, no. 5528; Krishnamurti 2003:278 *wēṇ-ṭu ‘wish’.

40.  Proto-Indo-European *wer- ‘squirrel’ also ‘polecat, ferret’ (reduplicated
forms: *we-wer-, *wer-wer-, *wi-wer-, *way-wer-, etc.): Farsi varvarah
‘squirrel’; Latin vīverra ‘ferret’; Welsh gwiwer ‘squirrel’; Breton gwiber
‘squirrel’; Scots Gaelic feorag ‘squirrel’; Old Icelandic íkorni ‘squirrel’;
Norwegian ikorn, ikorna ‘squirrel’; Danish egern ‘squirrel’; Swedish
ekorre ‘squirrel’; Old English ācweorna ‘squirrel’ (āc- = ‘oak’); Middle
Low German ēkeren, ēkhorn ‘squirrel’; Dutch eekhoorn ‘squirrel’; Old
High German eihhurno, eihhorno ‘squirrel’ (New High German Eichhorn);
Lithuanian vėverìs, vaiverė͂, voverė͂ ‘squirrel’, vaiverìs ‘male polecat’;
Latvian vãvere ‘squirrel’; Old Prussian weware ‘squirrel’; Czech veverka
‘squirrel’; Old Russian věverica ‘squirrel’ (Russian véverica [веверица]).

 Dravidian: Tamil uruttai ‘squirrel’; Telugu uruta ‘squirrel’.

41. Proto-Indo-European *wor-/*wr̥ - ‘(vb.) to plow; (n.) furrow, ditch’: Latin
urvum ‘the curved part of a plow, plow-tail’, urvō ‘to plow round, to mark
out with a plow’ urvare 'to plow round, mark out with a plough', urvum 'the plough-tail', verv-agere 'to plow land'; Oscan uruvú ‘boundary-ditch’; Mycenaean wo-wo
(+ορ+οι) ‘boundary-ditch, boundary’; Greek ὅρος (Ionic οὖρος)
‘boundary’  Skt. urvarā 'fertile soil , field yielding crop'.

 Dravidian (*wur̤u >) *ur̤u ‘to plow, to dig up’: Tamil ur̤u ‘to plow,
to dig up, to root up (as pigs), to scratch, to incise (as bees in a flower)’,
ur̤avan, ur̤avōn, ur̤ āvan ‘plowman, agriculturalist’, (f.) ur̤atti, ur̤avu
‘plowing, agriculture’, ur̤ āl ‘plowing, scratching, probing (as bees the
flowers)’, ur̤unar ‘plowmen’, ur̤akku (ur̤ akki-) ‘to plow’; Malayalam
ur̤uka, ur̤ukuka, ur̤ utuka ‘to plow’, ur̤ama ‘tillage’, ur̤avan ‘plowman,
farmer’; Kota ug- (uṛt-) ‘to plow, to be plowed’, ukl ‘the act of plowing’;
Toda uṣf- (uṣt-) ‘to plow’; Kannaḍa ur̤ - (ur̤ t-, utt-) ‘to plow’, ur̤ ata, ur̤ uta,
ur̤ame, ur̤ime, ur̤ume, ur̤ al ur̤ uvike, ur̤ ike, ur̤uke, ur̤ ke, ukke ‘plowing’;
Telugu dunnu, dunu ‘to plow, to till’, dukki ‘plowing, tillage’; Kolami ur-
(urt-) ‘to harrow, to plow’; Naikṛi ur- ‘to plow, to harrow’; Parji uṛ- ‘to
plow’; Gadba (Salur) ūḍ- ‘to plow’; Gondi uṛānā, uṛ-, uḍ- (written ud-),
urānā, uṛdānā ‘to plow’; Konḍa ṛū- ‘to plow, to till soil’; Pengo ṛū- ‘to
plow’; Kui ṛūva (ṛūt-) ‘(vb.) to plow; (n.) plowing’, ūṛa (ūṛi-) ‘to dig with
snout, to root up’; Kuwi ṛū- ‘to plow’etc .

42. Proto-Indo-European : *mā- 'to measure', Skt. māna- 'measure, dimension, size, weight; a particular measure of weight', mātra- 'measure of any kind', Greek metron, Latin mensura 'measure'.

Dravidian: Tamil maṭṭam ‘measure, evenness, flatness, rule, line, gauging
rod, limit, extent, bound, degree, guess, conjecture; equality in height, size,
measure; whole quantity leaving no surplus; moderation’, maṭṭu ‘measure,
quantity, standard, degree, size, proportion, amount, limit, extent, scope,
range, estimate, conjecture, moderateness, that which is middling, that
which is commonplace, a standard of measurement’, maṭṭāy ‘moderately,
temperately’, maṭaṅku ‘measure, quantity, degree’; Malayalam maṭṭa ‘a
certain measure of length’, maṭṭam ‘the rule, level of a bricklayer,
carpenter’s square’, maṭṭu ‘measure, limit’; Kota maṭm ‘level place; all’;
Kannaḍa maṭṭa, maṭa, maṭṭasa ‘measure, extent, height, bound, limit,
proper limit, levelness, evenness, equality, regularity, exactness,
carpenter’s level or square’, maṭṭu ‘measure, extent, height, limit’, maṭṭa
‘exactness’; Tuḷu maṭṭa ‘carpenter’s or bricklayer’s square, level, height,
measure’, maṭṭu ‘measure, extent, limit, capacity, ability’; Telugu maṭṭamu
‘level, a leveling instrument, a level’, maṭṭugā ‘moderately, limitedly’,
maṭṭu ‘limit, bound, restriction, measure, extent, degree; limited,
moderate’. Can be a loan from Indo-Aryan.

43. Proto-Indo-European *mag- ‘young’, *magu- ‘young person, child’:
Avestan ma¦ava- ‘unmarried’; Old Irish macc ‘son’; Gothic magus ‘boy,
servant’, magaþs ‘maiden, girl’; Runic magoz ‘son’; Old Icelandic mögr
‘son, boy, youth’; Old English magu ‘child, son; man, warrior; attendant,
servant’, mKg(e)þ ‘maiden, girl; virgin’ (Modern English maid(en)); Old
Frisian maged, megith ‘maiden, girl’; Old Saxon magu ‘servant’, magađ
‘maiden, girl’; Old High German magad ‘maiden, girl’ (New High German
Magd ‘maid[servant]’, diminutive Mädchen ‘girl’), maga- in: magaczogo
‘trainer’; Latvian mač (gen. sg. maǵa) ‘small’.

Dravidian: Tamil maka ‘child, infant, young of animal, son or daughter,
young age’, makaṭu, makaṭū ‘female, woman, wife’, makavu ‘infant, son,
young of animals living in trees (as of monkeys)’, makaḷ ‘daughter,
woman, female, wife, damsel’, makaṇmai ‘sonship, manliness’, makār
‘sons, children’, makkaḷ ‘human beings’, mākkaḷ ‘men, people, mankind,
children’, makiṇan ‘husband, chief of an agricultural tract, lord’;
Malayalam makan ‘son’, makkaḷ ‘children (especially sons), the young of
animals’; Kota mog ‘child, wife’; Toda mox ‘child, son, daughter; male;
woman’; Kannaḍa maga ‘son, male person’, makan ‘son’, magu, magavu,
maguvu, moga, mogu, moguvu ‘child of any sex’, magaḷ ‘daughter’
makkaḷ, markaḷ, makkaḷir ‘children’, magaḷmā ‘a wife who is faithful to
her husband’; Koḍagu makka ‘children’; Tuḷu mage ‘son’, magaḷu
‘daughter’, makkaḷ ‘children’; Telugu maga, moga ‘male’, magãṭimi
‘manliness, bravery, prowess’, magãḍu ‘husband, man, male, king, hero’ etc etc .

44. Proto-Indo-European *men-/*mon-/*mn̥- ‘to stay, to remain, to abide, to
dwell; to be firm, steadfast, established, enduring’: Sanskrit man- ‘to wait,
to stay, to hesitate’; Avestan man- ‘to remain’; Old Persian man- ‘to
remain’; Armenian mnam ‘to remain’; Greek μένω ‘to stand fast; to stay at
home, to stay where one is at; (of things) to be lasting, to remain, to stand,
to be stable, to be permanent; to abide’, μί-μν-ω ‘to stay, to stand fast; to
tarry; (of things) to remain; to await’, μόνη ‘a staying, abiding;
permanence; stopping place, station, apartment, quarters, billets;
monastery’, μόνιμος ‘staying in one’s place, stable; (of persons) steady,
steadfast; (of things) lasting, enduring’; Latin maneō ‘to stay, to remain; to
endure, to last; to abide; to wait for, to await’. Probably also Tocharian
A/B mäsk- (< *mn̥-sk-e/o-) ‘to be’ etc etc .

Dravidian: Tamil mannu (manni-) ‘to be permanent, to endure, to stay, to
remain long, to persevere, to be steady’, mannal ‘permanence, stability,
steadiness’; Malayalam mannuka ‘to stand fast, to persevere’; Telugu
manu ‘to live, to exist, to behave, to act, to conduct oneself’, man(i)ki ‘existence, living, life, residing, livelihood, abode, dwelling, home, place,
locality’, manukuva ‘abode, dwelling, place’, manugaḍa ‘life, living,
livelihood, subsistence’, manucu, manupu ‘to protect, to maintain, to
preserve, to revive’, manupu ‘protection, maintenance’, manuvu ‘conduct’,
manni ‘life’, mannu ‘to last, to be durable’; Naiki (of Chanda) man- ‘to
be’; Gadba (Ollari) man- (may-, maṭ-) ‘to be, to stay’, (Salur) man- (manḍ-,
manj-, mey-) ‘to be’; Gondi mandānā (matt-), man- ‘to remain, to abide, to
be’; Parji men- (mend-, mett-) ‘to be, to stay’; Konḍa man- (maʀ-) ‘to be, to
stay, to dwell’; Pengo man- (mac-) ‘to be’; Kui manba (mas-) ‘to be, to
exist, to remain, to abide’; Kuwi man- (macc-) ‘to be’ etc etc .

45. Proto-Indo-European *mer-yo- ‘(young) man’: Greek (m.) μειράκιον ‘a
boy, lad, stripling’, (f.) μεῖραξ ‘a young girl, lass’; Sanskrit márya-ḥ ‘man,
(especially) young man, lover, suitor’, maryaká-ḥ ‘young stud (said of a
bull among cows)’; Avestan mairya- ‘young man’; Old Persian marīka-
(contracted from *mariyaka-) ‘person of lower rank, subject’. .

Dravidian *mar-i ‘male child, the young of an animal’: Tamil mari
‘young of sheep, horse, deer, etc.; female of sheep, horse, deer, etc.; sheep,
deer’; Malayalam mari ‘offspring, the young of animals, a young deer’;
Kannaḍa mari ‘the young of any animal (except cattle and buffaloes), a
young child; a shoot, sapling’; Telugu maraka ‘a kid’; Tuḷu mari ‘a young
animal’; Kota mayr ‘young of animals (except cattle)’; Toda mary ‘young
of animals (except buffaloes) and birds’; Gondi mari, marri/marr, maṛi,
marrī ‘son’; Pengo mazi ‘son’; Konḍa marin ‘son’, marisi ‘son’, mē-mari
‘husband, man’; Kui mrienji, mrīenju ‘son’; Kuwi miresi ‘son’, mrīesi
‘son, nephew’, mir"esi ‘son’; Brahui mār ‘son, boy, lad’.

46. Proto-Indo-European *mon-/*mn̥- (secondary e-grade form: *men-) ‘(vb.)
to protrude, to stand out, to jut out; (n.) highest or farthest point, topmost or
most protuberant part’: Avestan mati- ‘mountain top’; Latin mentum
‘chin’, ēmineō ‘to project, to stand out’, minae ‘the battlements, parapets of
a wall’, minor ‘to jut out, to project’, prōmineō ‘to stand out, to jut out, to
project’, mōns, -tis ‘mountain’; Welsh mynydd ‘mountain’, mant ‘jaw’;
Cornish meneth ‘mountain’; Breton menez ‘mountain’; Old Icelandic moena ‘to tower’. Pokorny 1959:726 *men- ‘to project’; Walde 1927—
1932.II:263 *men-; Mann 1984—1987:781—782 *mn̥tos ‘mouth, chin,
jaw’; Watkins 1985:41 *men- and 2000:54 *men- ‘to project’; Mallory—
Adams 1997:270 (?) men- ‘mountain’, *men- ‘to project, to stick out’;
Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:666 *m(e)n-t[º]-, also fn. 1 *m(e)n-, and
1995.I:574 *m(e)n-t- ‘mountain, heights’ etc etc .

Dravidian: Tamil mun ‘in front, previous, prior; antiquity, eminence’,
munnam ‘in front’, munpu ‘former time, front, antiquity; bodily strength,
greatness; before, in front of, formerly’, munpan ‘powerful man, leader,
master’, munr-il ‘front of a house, space’, munnar ‘before, in advance, in
front of, in former times’, munnu (munni-) ‘to meet, to reach, to join, to
precede’, munai ‘front, face, superiority, eminence, point, sharpened end,
edge, cape, headland’, munnōr ‘predecessors, ancestors, the ancients, chief
ministers’, munātu ‘that which is in front, that which is earlier’, munaiñar
‘commander of an army’, munti ‘front, outer edge of cloth, some time
before’, muntu (munti-) ‘(vb.) to come in front, to advance, to meet, to be
prior in time or place, to take precedence, to take the lead, to be first, to
surpass, to excel, to be old, to be long lasting; (n.) antiquity, priority,
beginning’, muntai ‘antiquity, the past, former time; ancestor; in front of’;
Malayalam mun, munnam ‘priority in space and time, first, former; before’,
munnamē ‘before’, munnar ‘forepart of animals’, munnal ‘presence’,
munnil, munnē ‘before’, munni ‘cape, headland’, munnēyavan, munnēvan
‘the former’, munti ‘the edge, skirt of cloth’, muntuka ‘to overtake’ etc etc .

47. Proto-Indo-European *rom-/*rm̥ - (secondary e-grade form: *rem-) ‘to
stop, to rest, to relax’: Greek (with prefixed ἠ-) ἤρεμος, ἠρεμαῖος ‘still,
quiet, gentle’, ἠρεμέω ‘to keep quiet, to be at rest’, ἠρέμησις ‘quietude’,
ἐρεμίζω ‘to make still or quiet’; Sanskrit rámate ‘to stop, to stay, to rest, to
abide’; Avestan rāman- ‘quiet’; Gothic rimis ‘rest, quiet, tranquility,
calm’; Lithuanian rãmas (n.) ‘quiet’, ramùs (adj.) ‘quiet, calm’, (inf.) rìmti
‘to be calm’.

Dravidian: Gondi romānā, rom- ‘to rest’, rōmānā ‘to rest after labor’,
roma ‘rest, repose’; Konḍa rōmb- ‘to rest, to take rest’; Pengo jōm- ‘to
stop, to rest, to cease’; Kui jāmba (jāmbi-) ‘to rest, to cease, to subside’;
Kuwi jōmali, jōminai, jōm- ‘to rest’, (?) rēmb- ‘to rest’.

48. Proto-Indo-European IE *pele-/*pl (1) "to fill," with derivatives referring to multitudinousness or abundance Greek poly-, combining form of polys "much" (plural polloi); cognate with Latin plus (source also of Sanskrit purvi "much," prayah "mostly;" Avestan perena-, Old Persian paru "much;" Greek plethos "people, multitude, great number," polys "much, plenty," ploutos "wealth;" Lithuanian pilus "full, abundant;" Old Church Slavonic plunu; Gothic filu "much," Old Norse fjöl-, Old English fela, feola "much, many;" Old English folgian; Old Irish lan, Welsh llawn "full;" Old Irish il, Welsh elu "much") .

Dravidian : Tamil pala ‘many, several, diverse’, palar ‘many or several
persons, assembly, society’, pal ‘many’; Malayalam pala ‘many, several,
various’; Kannaḍa pala, palavu ‘much, many, several, various’, palar,
palambar, palavar ‘several persons’; Telugu palu ‘many, several, various,
different’; Malto palware ‘to be multiplied, to be bred’, palwatre ‘to breed, to rear’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:355, no. 3987; Krishnamurti 2003:266
*pal-V- ‘many’.

Dravidian also has : Tamil paru ‘to become large, bulky, plump; to swell’, paruppu
‘thickness, largeness’, pariya ‘thick, large, big’; Malayalam paru ‘gross,
big’  , Tuḷu pariya ‘plenty, exceeding, much’; Telugu prabbu ‘to increase, to extend, to
flourish, to thrive '.

49. Proto-Indo-European *bherEk’-, *bhreEk’- > *bhrēk’- ‘to shine, to gleam,
to be bright’: Sanskrit bhrā́jate ‘to shine, to gleam, to glitter’; Avestan
brāzaiti ‘to beam’, brāza- ‘shimmering; radiance’; Welsh berth ‘beautiful’;
Gothic bairhts ‘bright, manifest’, bairhtei ‘brightness’; Old Icelandic
bjartr ‘bright, shining’, birti ‘brightness’; Old English beorht ‘bright’; Old
Saxon berht, beraht ‘bright’; Old High German beraht ‘bright’; Lithuanian
brjkšti ‘to dawn’; Palaic Palaic (3rd sg. pres.) pa-ar-ku-i-ti ‘to clean, to purify’; Hittite pár-ku-uš ‘pure, clean’.

Dravidian: Kota par par in- ‘to become a little light before dawn’;
Kannaḍa pare ‘to dawn’; Telugu parãgu ‘to shine’; Malto parce ‘to shine
brightly, to be seen clearly’.

50 . Proto-Indo-European *bhl-en-dh-/*bhl-on-dh-/*bhl-n̥-dh- ‘mixed or dark
colored’: Proto-Germanic *blundaz ‘mixed colored, gray’ > Old English
blonden-feax, blandan-feax ‘having mixed colored or gray hair’. Germanic
loans in: Medieval Latin blundus, blondos ‘yellow’; French blond(e) ‘fairhaired,
blond’; Italian biondo ‘fair-haired, blond’; Spanish blondo ‘blond’;
Old Provençal blon ‘blond’ Sanskrit bradhna 'ruddy,yellowish,pale red' etc.

Dravidian: Tamil pul ‘tawny color’, pullai ‘dull, yellowish color’;
Malayalam pulla ‘a yellowish color of cattle’; Kota bul ‘liver-colored’;
Telugu pula ‘yellowish’, pulla ‘brown, tawny’; Gadba (Salur) pula ‘light
brown color’ (loan from Telugu).

51. Proto-Indo-European *bhongh-/*bhn̥gh- (secondary full-grade form:
*bhengh-) ‘to swell, to fatten, to grow, to increase’, *bn̥gu- ‘swollen, fat,
thick’: Sanskrit baṁhate ‘to grow, to increase’, bahú-ḥ ‘much, abundant,
great, large’; Greek παχύς ‘thick, stout, fat, massive’; Old Icelandic bingr
‘bed, bolster’, bunga ‘elevation’, bunki ‘heap, pile’; Old High German
bungo ‘clod, lump’; Latvian bìezs ‘thick’; (?) Hittite pa-an-ku-uš ‘all,
whole’ etc etc .

Dravidian *poṅk- ‘to increase, to swell, to expand’: Tamil poṅku
(poṅki-) ‘to boil up; to bubble up by heat, to foam and rage (as the sea); to
increase; to swell; to shoot up; to be elated; to burst with anger; to be
swollen; to rise; to grow high; to abound, to flourish; to be fruitful; to
cook’, poṅkam ‘increase, abundance, joy, splendor’; Malayalam poṅṅuka
‘to boil over, to bubble up, to spread’; Kota poŋg- (poŋgy-) ‘to increase
magically in number’; Kannaḍa poṅgu ‘to boil over, to burst open, to
expand, to open, to blossom, to swell, to be elated, to exult, to be
overjoyed’; Koḍagu poŋŋ- (poŋŋi-) ‘to swell’; Tuḷu boṅguni ‘to be
distended’, boṅku̥, boṅku ‘protuberance’; Telugu poṅgu ‘to bubble up, to
boil, to effervesce, to rejoice, to be elated, to be puffed up, to be proud’;
Kolami poŋg- (poŋkt-) ‘to boil over’; Naikṛi poŋg- ‘to expand’ etc .

52. Proto-Indo-European *bhr-uH- (> *bhrū-) ‘eyelash, eyebrow’: Sanskrit
bhrū́-ḥ ‘an eyebrow, the brow’; Pāḷi bhamu-, bhamuka-, bhamukha- (<
*bhramu- < *bhrūmu- [cf. Gray 1902:29, §57) ‘eyebrow’; Khowār brū
‘eyebrow’; Avestan (f. dual) brvat- ‘eyebrows’; Greek “-φρῦς ‘the brow,
eyebrow’; Middle Irish (gen. dual) brúad ‘eyebrow’; Old Icelandic brún (<
*bºruwōn-) (pl. brynn) ‘eyebrow’; Faroese brún ‘eyebrow’; Norwegian
brūn ‘eyebrow’; Swedish (properly a plural form) bryn ‘eyebrow’; Danish
(properly a plural form) bryn ‘eyebrow’; Old English brū ‘eyebrow;
eyelid, eyelash’ (Modern English brow); Lithuanian bruvìs ‘eyebrow’; Old
Church Slavic brъvь ‘eyebrow’Tocharian A pärwān-, B (dual) pärwāne ‘eyebrows’  etc etc .

Dravidian: Kota kam bu· (kam- < kaṇ ‘eye’) ‘eyebrow’; Kolami bu·r
‘eyelash, eyebrow’; Gadba (pl.) burgul ‘eyebrows’; Kuwi kanu būru
‘eyebrow’.

53. Proto-Indo-European *(s)phel-, *(s)phl̥- ‘spleen’ (plus extensions: *(s)phelgh
º-, *(s)phel-gh-en-, *(s)phel-gh-eA, *(s)phl-eH-gh-, *(s)phl̥-n-gh-, etc.):
Sanskrit plīhán- ‘spleen’; Bengali pilihā, pilā ‘spleen’; Hindi pīlha, pilaī
‘spleen’; Punjabi lipph ‘enlarged spleen’; Avestan spǝrǝzan- ‘spleen’;
Armenian pºaycałn ‘spleen’; Greek σπλήν ‘spleen’, (pl.) σπλάγχνα ‘the
inward parts’; Latin liēn ‘spleen’; Old Irish selg ‘spleen’; Breton felc’h
‘spleen’; Old Church Slavic slězena ‘spleen’ etc .

Dravidian: Tuḷu pallè ‘spleen’; Telugu balla ‘enlargement of the spleen’;
Parji bella ‘spleen’; Kuwi balla, bella, bela ‘spleen’.

54 . Proto-Indo-European *pl̥H- ‘fortified settlement’: Sanskrit pū́r (gen. sg.
puráḥ) ‘rampart, wall, stronghold, fortress, castle, city, town’; Greek πόλις
(Homeric πτόλις) ‘city, citadel’; Lithuanian pilìs ‘castle’; Latvian pils
‘castle’.
Dravidian: Tamil paḷḷi ‘hamlet, herdsman’s village, hermitage, temple
(especially of Buddhists and Jains), palace, workshop, sleeping place,
school room’; Malayalam paḷḷi ‘hut, small settlement of jungle tribes,
public building, place of worship for Buddhists or foreigners, mosque,
royal couch’; Kannaḍa paḷḷi, haḷḷi ‘settlement, abode, hamlet, village’,
paḷḷiru ‘to rest, to inhabit’; Telugu palli ‘hut’, palliya, palle ‘small village’.
Krishnamurti 2003:8 *paḷḷ-i ‘hamlet’.

55. Proto-Indo-European *phreyH-/*phroyH-/*phriH- (> *phrī-) ‘to be fond of,
to care for, to feel affection for; to be pleased, happy, satisfied, or
delighted with’: Sanskrit prīṇā́ti ‘to please, to gladden, to delight, to
gratify, to cheer, to comfort, to soothe, to propitiate; to be pleased or
satisfied with, to delight in, to enjoy’, prī́yate ‘to be pleased’, priyá-ḥ
‘beloved, dear’, premán- ‘affection, kindness, fondness, love’, préyas-
‘dearer, more agreeable; a lover, a dear friend’, prīti-ḥ ‘pleasure, joy,
gladness, satisfaction’; Avestan frīnāiti ‘to love, to praise’, fryō ‘dear’;
Welsh rhydd ‘free’; Gothic freis ‘free’, frijei, frei-hals ‘freedom’, frijōn
‘love’, freidjan ‘to take care of’, frijōnds ‘friend’, friaþwa ‘showing love’;
Old Icelandic frjá ‘to love’, frjáls ‘love’ etc etc .

 Dravidian: Tamil pari ‘to be affectionate’, pari ‘love, affection’, parivu
‘affection, love, devotion, piety, delight, pleasure’; Malayalam parivu
‘love’; Kannaḍa paraḷiga ‘paramour’; Telugu perima ‘love, affection’.

56. Proto-Indo-European *pher-/*phor-/*phr̥ - ‘(vb.) to fly, to flee; (n.) feather,
wing’: Sanskrit parṇá-m ‘wing, feather’; Hittite (3rd sg.) pár-aš-zi ‘to
flee’; Latin -perus in properus ‘quick, rapid, hasty’, properō ‘to hasten’;
Old English fearn ‘fern’ (originally ‘feathery leaf’); Old Saxon farn ‘fern’;
Dutch varen ‘fern’; Old High German farn ‘fern’ (New High German
Farn); Russian Church Slavic perǫ, pъrati ‘to fly’, pero ‘feather’; Czech
prchnouti ‘to flee’; Polish pierzchnać ‘to flee' etc etc .

Dravidian: Tamil para (parapp-, parant-) ‘to fly, to hover, to flutter; to
move swiftly, to hasten, to be in a hurry; to be greatly agitated; to be
scattered, dispersed, to disappear’, (reduplicated) parapara ‘to hasten, to
hurry’, paravai ‘bird, wing, feather, bee’, pari ‘to run away, to flow out
quickly, to be displaced suddenly, to give way, to fly off, to be
discharged’, parai ‘flying, wing, feather, bird’; Malayalam parakka ‘to fly,
to flee’; Kota parn- (parnd-) ‘to fly, to run fast without stopping’;
Kannaḍa pari, paru ‘flying, running swiftly’; Tuḷu pāruni ‘to run, to fly, to
escape’; Telugu paracu ‘to run away, to flee, to flow; to cause to flee’,
pāru ‘to run, to flow’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:358, no. 4020. Tamil pari
(-v-, -nt-) ‘to run, to go out, to escape’, pari (-pp-, -tt-) ‘(vb.) to run, to
proceed; (n.) motion, speed, rapidity, pace of a horse, horse’, parippu
‘motion’; Malayalam pari ‘horse’; Toda pary- (parc-) ‘(horse) to gallop; to
ride at a gallop’; Kannaḍa pari, hari ‘(vb.) to run, to flow, to proceed (as
work), to go away, to disappear, to be discharged (as debt); (n.) moving,
running, flowing, stream’; Tuḷu pariyuni, hariyuni ‘to run, to flow’;
Telugu parugu, paruvu, parvu ‘running, a run’, pāru ‘to run, to run away’,
paruviḍu ‘to run’; Malto parce, parctre ‘to run away’.

57. Proto-Indo-European *phen- ‘food, protection’: Latin penus ‘food
supplies, provisions’; Lithuanian psnas ‘food’, penù, penjti ‘to feed, to
fatten’; Gothic fenea ‘barley-groats, porridge’; Farsi panāh ‘refuge,
protection’.

Dravidian: Tamil pēṇu (pēṇi-) ‘to treat tenderly, to cherish, to foster, to
protect, to regard, to esteem, to honor, to treat courteously, to worship, to
care for’, pēṇ ‘protection’, pēṇam ‘tenderness, regard, care, nurture’, piṇai
‘protecting with loving care’; Malayalam pēṇuka ‘to foster, to take care
of’, pēṇam ‘caution’, peṇṇuka ‘to take care of, to use, to take to oneself’;
Telugu pen(u)cu ‘to nourish, to nurture, to foster, to support, to rear, to
fatten, to increase, to extend’.

58. Proto-Indo-European *pher-/*phr̥ - ‘to bear, to bring forth’: Latin pariō ‘to
bear, to bring forth’; Lithuanian periù, perjti ‘to hatch’; (?) Gothic fraiw
‘seed’; (?) Old Icelandic frK, frjó ‘seed’, frjóa ‘to fertilize, to multiply, to be fertile’, frjór ‘fertile’, frjó-ligr, frjó-samr ‘fruitful’; Swedish frö ‘seed, grain’; Danish frø ‘seed, grain’.

 Dravidian: Tamil peru (peruv-, perr-) ‘to get, to obtain, to beget, to
generate, to bear’, pira ‘to be born, to be produced’, piravi ‘birth’;
Malayalam peruka ‘to bear, to bring forth, to obtain, to get’, p²ru ‘birth’;
Kota perv- (perd-) ‘to be born’, perp ‘birth’; Kannaḍa per- (pett-) ‘to get,
to obtain, to beget, to bear’; Koḍagu per- (peruv-, pett-) ‘to bear (child)’.

59 . Proto-Indo-European *pol- ‘to fall, to fall down’: Armenian phlanim ‘to
fall in’; Old Icelandic falla ‘to fall’, fall ‘fall, death, ruin, decay,
destruction’, fella ‘to fell, to make to fall, to kill, to slay’; Old English
feallan ‘to fall, to fall down, to fail, to decay, to die; to prostrate oneself’,
feall, fiell ‘fall, ruin, destruction, death’, fiellan ‘to make to fall, to fell, to
pull down, to destroy, to kill; to humble’; Faroese falla ‘to fall’; Danish
falde ‘to fall’; Norwegian falla ‘to fall’; Swedish fall ‘fall, descent’, falla
‘to fall, to descend’; Old Frisian falla ‘to fall’, fella ‘to fell’, fal ‘fall’; Old
Saxon fallan ‘to fall’, fellian ‘to fell’; Dutch vallen ‘to fall’, vellen ‘to fell’;
Old High German fallan ‘to fall’ (New High German fallen), fellan ‘to
fell’ (New High German fällen); Lithuanian púolu, pùlti ‘to fall (up)on, to
attack, to assault, to fall’; Latvian puolu, pult ‘to fall’.

Dravidian: Tamil pul ‘meanness, baseness’, pulai ‘baseness, defilement,
vice, lie, adultery, outcast’, pulaiyan ‘a low-caste person’, (f.) pulaicci,
pulaitti, pulaimi ‘baseness’, punmai ‘meanness, vileness, uncleanness’, pallan ‘vile, base person’, polliyār ‘low, base persons’, pollā ‘bad, vicious,
evil, severe, intense’, pollāṅku, pollāpu ‘evil, vice, defect, deficiency,
ruin’, pollā̆tu ‘vice, evil’, pollāmai ‘evil, fault’, pollān ‘a wicked man’,
polam ‘badness, evil’; Malayalam pula ‘taint, pollution etc etc .

60 . Proto-Indo-European *dhol-/*dhl̥- (secondary e-grade form: *dhel-) ‘to
swing, to dangle’: Armenian dołam ‘to tremble, to shake, to quiver’;
Swedish (dial.) dilla ‘to swing, to dangle’; Low German dallen ‘to dangle’.
Pokorny 1959:246 *dhel- ‘to tremble’; Sanskrit dola 'swing' ,shake'.

 Dravidian: Tamil tuḷaṅku (tuḷaṅki-) ‘to move, to sway from side to side (as
an elephant), to shake, to be perturbed, to be uprooted, to droop’, tuḷakku
(tuḷakki-) ‘to move, to shake, to bow, to nod’, tuḷakkam ‘shaking, waving,
motion, agitation of mind, fear, dread, diminishing, dwindling’, tulaṅku
(tulaṅki-) ‘to hang, to swing, to be agitated, to be disturbed’, tuḷuṅku
(tuḷuṅki-) ‘to shake, to toss’; Malayalam tuḷaṅṅuka ‘to move tremulously’,
tuḷakkam ‘shaking’; Kannaḍa tuḷaku, tuḷiku, tuḷuku, tuḷuṅku ‘to be agitated,
to shake’; Telugu dulupu ‘to shake so as to remove dust, etc.

61 Proto-Indo-European *tak’- ‘to touch, to strike, to push, to stroke’: Latin
tangō ‘to touch, to strike, to push, to hit’ (Old Latin tagō ‘to touch’);
Greek τεταγών ‘having seized’; Old English þaccian ‘to pat, to stroke’.

Dravidian: Kannaḍa tagalu, tagilu, tagulu ‘to come into contact with, to
touch, to hit, to have sexual intercourse with’; Tuḷu tagaruni ‘to draw
near’; Telugu tagulu, tavulu ‘to touch, to come into contact with; to strike
against; to follow; to pursue; to be entangled, ensnared, or caught’; Konḍa
tagli ‘to touch, to hit’; Malto take ‘to touch, to hurt’; Kuṛux taknā ‘to rub
or graze in passing, to give a very slight knock’.

62. Proto-Indo-European *tel-/*tol-/*tl̥- ‘to stretch, to extend; to bear, to
endure, to suffer’: Greek τλῆναι ‘to suffer, to endure, to bear’; Latin tolerō
‘to bear, to tolerate, to endure, to sustain’, lātus (< *tlā-) ‘broad, wide’;
Middle Irish tláith ‘tender, weak’; Welsh tlawd ‘poor’; Gothic þulan ‘to
tolerate, to suffer, to endure’; Old Icelandic þola ‘to bear, to endure, to
suffer’; Old English þolian ‘to endure, to suffer’, geþyld ‘patience’,
geþyld(i)gian, geþyldian ‘to bear (patiently), to endure’; Old Frisian tholia
‘to endure, to bear, to suffer’, thelda ‘to endure, to bear, to suffer’; Old
Saxon tholōn, tholian ‘to endure, to bear, to suffer’; Old High German
dolēn, t(h)olēn, tholōn ‘to endure, to bear, to suffer’, thulten, dulten ‘to
endure, to bear, to suffer’ (New High German dulden).

 Dravidian: Tamil tāḷu (tāḷi-) ‘to bear, to suffer, to tolerate, to be worth, to
be possible, to be practicable’; Kannaḍa tāḷ, tāḷu (tāḷḍ-) ‘to hold, to take, to
obtain, to get, to assume, to receive, to have or possess, to undergo, to
experience, to suffer patiently or quietly, to be patient, to endure, to wait,
to last, to continue unimpaired, to wear well, to bear with’, taḷe ‘to hold, to
bear, to carry; to put on (clothes)’; Tuḷu tāḷuni ‘to bear, to endure, to
suffer, to forbear, to have patience’, tāḷmè ‘patience, forbearance,
endurance’; Telugu tāḷu ‘to bear, to suffer, to endure, to be patient, to
refrain, to pause, to wait, to last, to wear, to be durable’, tālimi, tāḷimi,
tāḷika ‘patience, endurance’.

63.  Proto-Indo-European *thaph- ‘to press, to tread, to trample’: Sanskrit saṁ-
tápati ‘to oppress, to torment, to torture’, sáṁ-tapyate ‘to be oppressed,
afflicted’; Pāḷi tapo ‘torment, punishment, penance’, tapana ‘torment,
torture’; Greek ταπεινός ‘lowly, humble’ (literally, ‘downtrodden’); Old
Icelandic þefja ‘to stamp’, þóf ‘crowding, thronging, pressing’ East Frisian
dafen ‘to hit, to pound’; Old High German bi-debben ‘to suppress’;
Russian tópat' [топать], tópnut' [топнуть] ‘to stamp, to stamp one’s foot’.

Dravidian: Tamil tappu (tappi-) ‘to strike, to beat, to kill’, tappai ‘a blow’;
Kannaḍa dabbe, debbe, ḍabbe, ḍebbe ‘a blow, stroke’; Telugu dabbaḍincu
‘to slap’, debba ‘blow, stroke, attack’; Parji tapp- ‘to strike, to kill’, tapoṛ
‘slap’; Gadba (Salur) debba ‘cut, blow’ (< Telugu) .

64. Proto-Indo-European *thew-/*thow-/*thu-, *thewH-/*thowH-/*thuH- (>
*thū-) ‘to swell; to be swollen, fat’: Sanskrit tavas- ‘strong’; Latin tumeō
‘to swell, to be swollen, to be puffed up’, tūber ‘swelling, protuberance’;
Russian Church Slavic tyju, tyti ‘to become fat’; Lithuanian tumjti ‘to
become thick’, taukaĩ ‘(animal) fat’  Also  Proto-Germanic *θūs-χundi- ‘thousand’ > Gothic þūsundi ‘thousand’; Old Icelandic þúsund‘thousand’ (also þús-hundrað); Faroese túsund ‘thousand’; Norwegian tusund ‘thousand’; Swedish tusen ‘thousand’; Danish tusen ‘thousand’;
Old English þūsend ‘thousand’ etc etc .

Dravidian: Tamil tava ‘much, intensely’; Kannaḍa tave ‘abundantly,
greatly, wholly, completely, exceedingly’ .

65.  Proto-Indo-European *t’ekh(s)-/*t’okh(s)- ‘to do what is fit, appropriate,
suitable, proper’: Sanskrit daśasyáti ‘to serve, to oblige, to honor, to
worship,’ dasā́ ‘condition, circumstance, fate’, dákṣati ‘to act to the
satisfaction of; to be able or strong’, dákṣa-ḥ ‘able, fit, adroit, clever,
dexterous, industrious, intelligent’; Latin decus ‘distinction, honor, glory,
grace’, decet ‘it is fitting, proper, seemly’; Old Irish dech, deg ‘best’;
Greek δεκτός ‘acceptable’; Old High German gi-zehōn ‘to arrange’.

 Dravidian: Tamil taku (takuv-, takk-/takunt-) ‘to be fit, appropriate,
suitable, proper, worthy, adequate, proportionate, excellent; to begin; to
get ready; to be obtained; to be deserved; to resemble’; Kannaḍa tagu
(takk-) ‘to be fit or proper, to suit’; Tuḷu takka ‘fit, suitable, proper,
deserving, worthy’; Malayalam taku ‘to be fit, to suit’; Telugu tagu ‘to be
proper, becoming, fit, suitable, decent, worthy, competent’.

66.  Proto-Indo-European  *kai- "heat" Old English hat "hot, flaming, opposite of cold," used of the sun or air, of fire, of objects made hot; also "fervent, fierce, intense, excited," from Proto-Germanic *haita- (source also of Old Saxon and Old Frisian het, Old Norse heitr, Middle Dutch and Dutch heet, German heiß "hot," Gothic heito "heat of a fever")  Lithuanian kaistu "to grow hot" etc .

Dravidian *cūṭ-/*cuṭ-V- ‘to be hot, to burn’:
Tamil cuṭu (cuṭuv-, cuṭṭ-) ‘to be hot, to burn; to warm (tr.), to heat, to burn
up, to roast, to toast, to bake, to fry, to cook in steam, to burn (as bricks in
a kiln), to cauterize, to brand’, cuṭu ‘burning, heating, scalding’, cuṭar
‘light, brilliance, luster, sun, sunshine, moon, planet, fire, burning lamp,
flame, spark’, cuṭal ‘drops of burning oil falling from a lamp, charred end
of a burning stick’, cuṭalai, cuṭu-kāṭu ‘burning-ground’, cūṭu (cūṭi-) ‘to
brand (as cattle); to cauterize’, cūṭu ‘that which is heated, burnt, roasted;
heat, warmth; feverishness, fomentation; hot temper, anger, brand’, cūṭṭu
‘that which is burnt or cooked, a kind of ola torch’; Malayalam cuṭuka ‘to
burn (intr.), to be hot, to feel hot; to burn (tr.), to make hot, to toast, to
roast, to bake, to boil’, cuṭuvikka ‘to get one to burn’, cuṭar ‘fire,
brightness’, cuṭala ‘the burning place in the southern corner of the
compound; burning or burying place’, cūṭu ‘heat, burning’, cūṭṭu ‘torch’,
cūṭṭa ‘the top of a coconut branch used as a torch’; Kota tuṛ- (tuṭ-) ‘to
roast, to bake (pots), to burn (corpses)’, cuṛ ga·ṛ ‘funeral burning-place’,
cu·ṛ (oblique cu·ṭ-) ‘heat, a burn, spark thrown off by hammered iron’;
Toda tuṛ- (tuṭ-) ‘to burn (tr.)’; Kannaḍa suḍu (suṭṭ-) ‘to burn (tr.), to roast,
to bake, to fire (a gun); to be consumed with fire, to burn (intr.), to feel
hot, to be roasted’, suḍu ‘burning, etc.’, suḍuka ‘who has burned’,
suḍuvike, suḍuha ‘burning’, suḍu-gāḍu ‘cemetery’, sūḍu ‘cauterization,
burning’, sūṭe ‘a torch of wisps, etc etc .

67. Proto-Indo-European *ghabh- ‘to grab, to seize’: Sanskrit gábhasti-ḥ ‘hand,
arm’; Khotanese ggośtä (< *gabasti-) ‘handful’; Old Irish ga(i)bid ‘to take,
to seize’; Latin habeō ‘to have, to hold’; Umbrian habe ‘to take, to receive,
to have’; Gothic gabei ‘riches’; Lithuanian gãbana, gabanà ‘armful’. Avestan gauua 'hand (of demons)' ( Mayrhofer.).

Dravidian: Tamil kavar ‘to seize, to grasp, to catch, to steal, to get control
of, to receive, to experience, to desire, to have sexual intercourse with’,
kavarcci ‘captivation, attraction’, kavarvu ‘captivation, attraction, desire’,
kavavu (kavavi-) ‘(vb.) to desire, to embrace, to copulate; (n.) copulation’,
kavarru (kavarri-) ‘to attract’, kavai ‘to include, to join with, to embrace’;
Malayalam kavaruka ‘to plunder, to rob’, kavarcca ‘robbery, plunder’;
Kannaḍa kavar ‘to take away by force, to seize, to strip, to plunder’,
kavarte, kavate ‘taking by force, seizing, plundering’.

68. Proto-Indo-European *ghel-/*ghol-/*ghl̥- ‘(vb.) to plow; (n.) a plow’:
Sanskrit halá-ḥ ‘a plow’; Armenian jlem ‘to plow’; Lithuanian žúolis
‘sleeper, tie’.

Dravidian: Tamil kalappai ‘plow, plowshare’; Malayalam kalappa ‘a plow
and what belongs to it’; Telugu kalapa ‘materials for a plow, timber for
buildings’; Kannaḍa kalapu ‘materials for a house, for a plow’. Also related  Malayalam kalluka ‘to dig out, to excavate’ Tamil kallu (kalli-) ‘to dig out (as a hole), to hollow (as a rat), to excavate,
to scoop out (as a nut), to erode’, kellu (kelli-) ‘to dig’; Kota kelv- (kelt-)
‘to dig with fingers or paws’ .

69.  Proto-Indo-European *man/*min/ *mn 'fish'  Sanskrit mina 'fish' Greek  mái̯nǟ f, mai̯nís 'a small herring-like fish' etc etc .


Dravidian : mīṉ 'fish' .

70.  Proto-Indo-European *Har/Hṛ-‘to fit, to fix, to put together’: Avestan ar- ‘to arrange, to settle, to establish, to fix’; arǝm ‘right, appropriate’; Old Persian arta ‘truth’, Sanskrit ṛtá- ‘right, proper, true, order’, ṛtú- ‘fixed or fit time’, arpáyati ‘to put into, to fix’, áram ‘readily, fitly, enough’; Armenian aṙnem ‘to make’; Greek ἀραρίσκω (ararisko) ‘to join together, to fashion, to fix, to fit together, to construct, to prepare, to contrive, to fit, to equip, to make fitting or pleasing’; Latin ars, -tis ‘art, skill’; Tocharian A ārwar ‘ready, prepared’; Hittite āra 'right, proper, due'. (Dr. Benedetti personal communication) .

Dravidian: Tamil aram ‘moral or religious duty, virtue, dharma’, aravan
‘one who is virtuous, god, Buddha, ascetic, etc.’, aravi ‘virtue, that which
is holy, female ascetic’, araviya ‘virtuous’, araviyān ‘virtuous man’, aran
‘sacrificer’; Malayalam aram ‘law, dharma’; Kannaḍa ara, aru ‘virtue,
charity, alms, law, dharma’.  Also perhaps connected  Tamil
āru ‘way, road, path, means, manner, method’; Malayalam āru ‘way,
manner’; Kota -a·r in: o·yṇ-a·r ‘path’ .For an important  discussion on the subject see here.

71. Proto-Indo-European :  *man-(/*mon-)/*mn̥- ‘hand’: Latin manus ‘hand’;
Umbrian (abl. sg.) mani ‘hand’; Oscan (acc. sg.) manim ‘hand’; Gothic
manwus ‘at hand, ready’, manwjan ‘to (make) ready, to prepare’, *gamanwjan
‘to have prepared, to have ready’, manwiþa ‘readiness’, (adv.)
manwuba ‘ready’; Old Icelandic mund ‘hand’, mynda ‘to shape, to form’;
Old English mund ‘hand’; Old High German munt ‘hand’; Hittite (3rd sg.pres. act.) ma-(a-)ni-ya-aḫ-ḫi, ma-ni-aḫ-ḫi, ma-ni-ya-aḫ-zi, ma-ni-i-ya-aḫ-
zi, ma-ni-aḫ-zi (< *mn̥-yo-) ‘to hand out, to hand over, to consign, to
accord, to allot, to present, to proffer, to impart, to dedicate, to dispose of’,
(dat.-loc. sg.) ma-a-ni-ya-aḫ-ḫi-ya-at-ti ‘handout, consignment’) etc etc .

Dravidian : Tamil maṇṇu (maṇṇi-) ‘to do, to make, to perform, to adorn, to
beautify, to decorate, to polish, to perfect, to finish’, maṇṇu-ru ‘to polish
(as a gem)’, manai ‘to make, to create, to form, to fashion, to shape’;
Malayalam manayuka, maniyuka ‘to fashion, to form earthenware, to make
as a potter’.

The semantic development attested in Dravidian , which is rather remarkable and parallels Latin,Gothic etc  is absent in other language families !.

72. Proto-Indo-European *kar /*kr ‘to cry out, to call, to screech’:
Sanskrit járate ‘to call out to, to address, to invoke; to crackle (fire)’;
Crimean Gothic criten ‘to cry’; Old Icelandic krutr ‘murmur’, krytja ‘to
murmur, to grumple’, krytr ‘noise, murmur’; Old English ceorran ‘to
creak’, ceorian ‘to murmur, to grumble’, ceorcian ‘to complain’, cracian
‘to resound’, crācettan ‘to croak’, crāwian ‘to crow’; Old Saxon *krāian
‘to crow’; Dutch kraaien ‘to crow’, krijs ‘shriek, cry’, krijsen ‘to shriek, to
screech’, krijten ‘to weep, to cry’; Old High German crāen, krāhen,
chrāen, khrāen ‘to crow’ (New High German krähen); Middle High
German krīzen ‘to cry loudly, to groan’ (New High German kreissen ‘to be
in labor’); Old Chruch Slavic grajǫ, grajati ‘to crow, to caw’.

 Dravidian: Tamil karai (-v-, -nt-) ‘to sound, to roar, to weep, to lament, to
call, to invite’, karai (-pp-, -tt-) ‘to call, to summon’; Malayalam karayuka
‘to cry, to lament, to neigh, to caw, to caterwaul’, karaccil ‘weeping,
crying, lamentation; cry of certain animals or birds’, karaḷuka ‘to
mumble’; Kota karv- (kard-) ‘to bellow, to caw’; Toda kar- (karθ-) ‘to
bellow’, kark ‘bellowing’; Tuḷu kareyuni, karevuni ‘to crow’, karmbuni ‘to
mutter’; Kannaḍa kare, kari ‘to emit a sound; to sound, to call, to invite’,
karaha, kareyuvike ‘calling, etc.’; Telugu kraṅgu ‘the sound of a bell’,
krandu ‘to sound, to ring, to lament’; Naiki (of Chanda) karug-/karuk- ‘to
call, to crow, to invite, to summon’, karup- ‘to cause to summon (a
physician)’; Parji kerip- (kerit-) ‘to cackle’; Gondi karŋg- ‘to call’, karingi
‘calling’; Kui krāva ‘the tongue of a bell’; Kuṛux xarxnā ‘to ring, to jingle,
to clink, to give a sound’, xarxa"ānā ‘to make ring, to perform music’;
Malto qarġre ‘to cry out’.

73. Proto-Indo-European :  *pherkh-/*phr̥ kh-
‘to be afraid, to fear’: Gothic faurhtei ‘fear’, faurhts ‘fearful, afraid’,
faurhtjan ‘to be afraid’; Old English fyrhto (Northumbrian fryhto) ‘fear,
fright’, (ge)fyrht ‘afraid’, fyrhtan ‘to frighten’, forht ‘fearful, afraid’,
forhtian ‘to be afraid, to fear’; Old Frisian fruchte ‘fear’, fruhtia ‘to fear’;
Old Saxon foroht, foraht ‘fear’, forahtian ‘to fear’; Old High German
furhten ‘to fear’ (New High German fürchten), forhta ‘fear’ (New High
German Furcht); Tocharian A pärsk-, prask-, B pärsk-, prāsk- ‘to be
afraid, to fear’, A praski, B prosko, proskiye or proskye ‘fear’.

Dravidian : Tamil pirar̤ ‘to tremble’, pirar̤ cci, pirar̤vu ‘shivering,
trembling’, pirakkam ‘awe, fear’, pirappu ‘fear, alarm’; Kannaḍa piriki
‘coward’; Telugu piriki ‘coward; timid, cowardly’.

74.  Proto-Indo-European : *gau/*gu 'to bend, curl; round object', Greek γύπη cave, den, hole, Old English cofa 'cove, closet'; *kau- 'cavity', Lat. cavea 'hollow, cavity; cage, den, enclosure', cavus 'hollow, concave', Irish cúas 'hollow, cavity'. (Dr.Benedetti , personal communication )

Dravidian :   Tamil kevi ‘deep valley, cave’; Kannaḍa gavi ‘cave’; Tuḷu gavi
‘cave, hole, cell’; Telugu gavi ‘cavern’.
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So ,we see relatively a large amount of cognates and root sharing, between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Dravidian . I must inform that not all of them are exclusive to PIE and PD , several are shared with Proto-Afrasian and in few occasions Uralic, Altaic etc also. I must  say thanks to Dr. Alan R. Bomhard , whose great work A Comprehensive Introduction to Nostratic Comparative Linguistics was the reason, that  first made me see this remarkable relation of Dravidian and Indo-European . Talking about relations, it should be mentioned here, that PIE shares the largest amount of cognates with Proto-Afrasian (with grammatical relations also) and it can be  emphatically suggested excluding the non-IE neolithic substratum, seen among some Western and Southern European IE languages!. For shared roots and cognates between PA and PIE see here for example .But that's not the end by far!, as  PIE  shares a special relation, to Sumerian and Hurro-Urartian too , see here and here , making the claims made here for example totally unacceptable and baseless . All of which perhaps suggests , common genesis around Near East ! . Can Dravidian be added to the same category also? , frankly I don't have the answer and I think not anyone honestly , but it is indeed remarkable, that many of the forms attested in Dravidian are in Centum and non-Indic type form , which clearly rules out borrowing from Indo-Aryan as many are not even found in Indo-Aryan and in Eastern IE languages!. Can this mean that in India other unattested IE dialects once existed?. We do know for example that there is Bangani Language in Garhwal , which clearly has Centum features , perhaps we have to think of a two layered Indo-European expansion to South Asia. Where the first was closer to Centum and second brought Satemization.

Note : In this  post ,I have mostly taken the roots and words from Bomhard's work,  while linking them with other standard sources.  I have edited them, when found necessary and have kept the sources he cites , on some occasions as well . I didn't list here all of his comparisons as I didn't find the rest very robust , but certainly there are more and I will list them too , I am studying on the matter and I know I will add further , in near future , you know friends keep studying , it never stops . The more study you do , the more you learn about how you are deeply related to the sciences, arts , culture and also history , there my friends, there lies the freedom!.





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